* loss of herbivore
condition and sometimes death by starvation;
And in the meantime we desperately need a substitute large-bodied herbivore
doing their job.
Induced responses that reduce the herbivore
survival and reproduction are termed as induced resistance (Karban and Baldwin, 1997).
Ripley's bivariate [K.sub.12] function  was used to evaluate the spatial relationship between cattle herds and wild herbivore
herds at different scales of distance at an interval of 250 meters up to a maximum distance (s) of 5000 meters.
Unfortunately, Reginald scares away the herbivore
dinosaurs when he charges to greet them.
Herbivore-damaged seeds were counted as any seeds with obvious herbivore
damage, along with empty seed chambers that contained seed debris.
A post hoc LSD test revealed that the water content (%) of omnivorous fish group were significantly different, both from herbivore
and carnivore (P<0.05) (Fig.
could halt this process in places, and roe, sika and red deer populations would be likely to thrive post-farming.
Our study evaluates how risks might shape foraging decisions by a specialist mammalian herbivore
. Our experimental trials reduced the complexity experienced by free-ranging animals and demonstrated a clear evaluation of how individuals dealt with both types of risk in isolation.
A one square kilometre area was sealed off from the rest of the bush with an electric fence which keeps out elephant and other large herbivores
. The point was to study and also to illustrate the effect that elephant in particular and other species of herbivores
can have over time on the floodplain woodland.
In most of the reported possible mechanisms driving large herbivore
populations, reproduction and survival have been central, having direct consequences on recruitment (van Langevelde and Prins, 2008).
initiate feeding on a host plant, they present "cues", which the plant perceives and uses to help rapidly mobilize its defenses in response to the herbivore
's attack on the plant.