There are also some studies that do not show restrictive pattern association between HCV and pulmonary disease but rather association of asthma with HCV.9 HCV is a hepatotropic
, non-cytopathic virus that can cause hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).14,15
 Studies have previously documented a variable prevalence of hepatotropic
viruses: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) (1.7-67%), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) (7.3-42%), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (1.16-10.6%) and HEV (Hepatitis E Virus) (16.3-66.3%).
Besides the above-mentioned factors, co-infection with other hepatotropic
viruses (hepatitis A virus, HBV, and hepatitis D virus), HIV co-infection, and intravenous drug use play important role in patients with chronic disease.
(1) Previous studies have demonstrated high morbidity and mortality rates due to HEV infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (4) and after superinfection by other hepatotropic
viruses in patients with chronic HCV.
Owing to hepatotropic
nature, HCV and HBV co-infection is common in highly endemic areas and among subjects with increased possibility of parental infections.1 HCV causes persistent infection in 60-65% of HCV mono-infected and 70-80% of HCV/HBV co-infected patients.2 Exogenous inter ferons (IFNs) are the main anti-viral cytokines with pleiotropic activities that act as a crucial factor in the innate immune system which provide mechanisms to defend the host from infection by other organis m s.
Malignancies, most commonly hepatocellular carcinoma, comprised 10.8% (32/297), with a similar proportion of chronic hepatotropic
viral infections (9.4%, 28/297), of which hepatitis C was most frequent.
Although initially HPgV was thought to be a hepatotropic
virus, the viral negative strand, which is the putative replicative intermediate of the virus, was not detected in liver tissue (3); however, it was found in bone marrow and spleen (33,34).
HCV is known as a hepatotropic
non cytopathic virus which can evade the immune response of the host.
This work aims to extend these findings by investigating the effect of age on prevalence of CMV as non hepatotropic
agent infection in a large number of samples that included different range of ages.
The serologies of the hepatotropic
viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV) as well as the most common antibodies associated with autoimmune hepatitis (ASMA, anti-LKM1, anti-SLA, and anti-LP) were negative.
viruses), metabolic (Wilson disease and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), and autoimmune (autoimmune hepatitis and celiac disease) disorders of the liver were screened if the patients' ALT levels were above the accepted values.
HCV is mainly hepatotropic
, but its RNA has been associated with lymph nodes, brain tissue, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) especially macrophages, B-cells, and T-cells (CD8+) [6, 7].