The hepatotoxicity criteria of this study were quite rigid (elevation of ALT/AST > 3 x ULN or elevated total bilirubin > 2 x ULN, and ALP > 2 times threshold as a significant elevation; the hepatotoxic
events were also defined as Hy's Law cases, liver-related treatment discontinuation, hospitalization due to hepatic cause and acute liver failure, transplant, or death).
cases, resulting in liver transplantation, led to elimination of some usnic acid containing products from the market (Navarro and Lucena 2014).
The observation during histological examination that fluconazole is more hepatotoxic
than ketoconazole and itraconazole is consistent with the results from a large population-based study of 90,847 users of antifungal agents in Taiwan .
Animal models of ALF available presently mainly include two broad types: hepatotoxic
drug models and surgical models.
Ingredient Number of hepatotoxic
articles/case reports Sarsaparilla root 0 Cinnamon bark 1  Ginger root 0 Licorice root 0 Dandelion root 0 Cardamom seed 0 Clove bud 0 Black pepper 1  Juniper berry 1  Long pepper berry 0 Phellodendron bark 0 Rhubarb root 4 [8-11] Skullcap root 7 [12-18] Coptis root 0 Forsythia fruit 0 Gardenia fruit 7 [19-25] Honeysuckle 0 Winter melon 0
Although considered to have minimal to no hepatotoxic
effects, this case suggests that diphenhydramine may be hepatotoxic
at high doses with chronic use (as the patient had been taking at least 400 mg per day for over four months).
Towards 3 to 5 times' increase in serum transaminases, hepatotoxic
drugs should be stopped, other causes ruled out, and a rechallenge made .
They showed that treatment of hepatotoxic
rats by dill oil markedly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and blood lipids and also increased total protein and albumin.
ALT and AST levels were determined to evaluate the possible hepatotoxic
effects of the plant extracts, while urea and creatinine levels were measured to assess the possible nephrotoxic effects.
Acetaminophen is hepatotoxic
, damaging to the liver, and yet it is sold as an over-the-counter drug.
As a result of the enzyme block, hepatotoxic
intermediates such as maleyland fumarylacetoacetic acids accumulate and are ultimately metabolized to succinylacetone (SUAC), a highly specific marker for TYR1 (1) (Fig.
The biochemical analysis revealed significant increased ALT AST and bilirubin, which supported the histological findings that nickel sulphate, is hepatotoxic
. ALT and AST activities were not reversed at 30th day.