CDGs are a group of rare, inherited, metabolic disorders caused by glycosylation defects that present as a broad range of clinical symptoms, including coagulopathy, hepatopathy
, myopathy, hypoglycemia, protein-losing enteropathy and reduced cell counts.
Traditionally, Ganoderma species have been widely used in the treatment of hepatopathy
, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, and gastric ulcers.
Copper storage hepatopathy
is a well-described disease in which the liver accumulates too much copper.
The workup for AIH is multimodal and aims to rule out other etiologies such as congestive hepatopathy
, iron overload, viral hepatitis, as well as other autoimmune liver diseases.
Increased AST activity paired with increased CK activity usually points to a catabolic state in the muscles, but concurrent elevation in bile acid levels indicates hepatopathy
. Increases in both uric acid and phosphorus concentrations along with alterations in the concentration of sodium and calcium usually suggest renal involvement.
is a liver dysfunction due to venous congestion, usually as a result of dysfunction of the heart, which is also known as congestive heart failure.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been recognized as the most common metabolic disorder that impairs blood glucose level which leads to high microvascular complications, angiopathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, hepatopathy
and neurological defects (Sharma et al., 2010; Khan et al., 2013).
has been described in patients with type 1 AIP and autoimmune hepatitis, or manifest as pseudotumors in the liver parenchyma (35).
Additionally, a venous spread can be through the anastomoses between the umbilical veins and the portal vein, if there is hepatopathy
. Direct spread through the peritoneum is usually observed in gastrointestinal tumors.
Our exclusion criteria included erythrocyte transfusion in the previous three months, significant acute or chronic bleeding, active malignant or hematologic disease, folate or vitamin B12 deficiency, thrombocytopenia, uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism, clinical history of parathyroidectomy, clinical trial participation, major elective surgery, temporary dialysis access, and chronic hepatopathy
, which basically refers to passive hepatic congestion in congestive heart failure, is an important and relatively common cause of perivenous lymphedema.
Causes of cirrhosis Congestive Hepatopathy
* Cryptogenic 8% HCV 22% Alcohol 37% Hemochromatosis 2% NASH 18% PSC 2% PBC 6% AIH 1% * [Unreadable in original source.] Note: Table made from pie chart.