has significantly decreased in incidence, the absolute number and rate of complications are high, which are still the key issues in biliary surgery and the main causes of death in benign biliary disease in China.
Park, "Sarcomatoid cholangiocarcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells associated with hepatolithiasis
: a case report," Clinical and Molecular Hepatology, vol.
The intraductal disease does not require treatment unless hepatolithiasis
, intrahepatic ductal stenosis, and hepatic abscess are present, in which situation the affected segment or lobe of the liver can be resected.
Lee et al., "Accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for locating hepatolithiasis
and detecting accompanying biliary strictures," Endoscopy, vol.
Although the initial grading system was devised in dysplastic lesions related to hepatolithiasis
, the same system is currently applicable to premalignant lesions of other risk factors.
Tyson et al established some risk factors for CCAs including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hepatolithiasis
, biliary-duct cysts and toxins .
In a study, Bile specimens were obtained by syringe aspiration from common bile duct in 150 patients with hepatolithiasis
who underwent surgical intervention22.
The first case of Jaundice, and hepatolithiasis
due to an anterior RHA pressing on the CBD was reported in 1984.
There are several factors that increase the risk for CCA, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, parasitic infection, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis
, viral infection, and toxins [23, 216].
Accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography for locating hepatolithiasis
and detecting accompanying biliary strictures.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An innovative problem Concomitant primary hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatolithiasis
is a rare form.