Arterial portography is another method of navigation, which requires intra-arterial injection of contrast, although visualization of the PV can be suboptimal, particularly if there is hepatofugal
PV flow (26).
Liver Grade 1 (chronic liver disease): coarse echotexture, +- irregular surface, +- blunt or rounded margin, portal vein caliber 13 mm and a hepatopetal velocity of <15 cm/sec or a hepatofugal
6) The normal waveform demonstrates 2 hepatofugal
peaks reflecting right atrial filing during ventricular systole and diastole, followed by a hepatopetal peak from retrograde flow into the hepatic veins during atrial contraction.
It was hepatopetal in 46 (92 Percent) and hepatofugal
in 4(8 Percent) patients.
Na hipertensao portal em grau mais avancado, tambem e possivel detectar fluxo hepatofugal
ao Doppler, o qual e considerado anormal em qualquer segmento da veia porta.
In these patients, the lungs and abdominal lymph nodes are the most common sites of metastasis possibly due to hepatofugal
portosystemic shunting (ie, flow directed away from the liver to the systemic circulation) induced by splenic vein obstruction or to the presence of aggressive features of the primary carcinoma.
Air in portal venous radicals assumes a peripheral, subcapsular location within the liver parenchyma, reflecting the direction of portal venous flow, while air in the biliary tree will have a more central location in the porta hepatis as a consequence of hepatofugal
Analysis of hepatofugal
flow in portal venous system using ultrasonic Doppler duplex system.
Portal hypertension also can cause blood in the portal venous system to reverse direction, resulting in hepatofugal
(ie, away from the liver) flow.
Hepatic veins show normal triphasic waveform (type I) with two hepatofugal
and one hepatopetal (retrograde) velocity peaks and abnormal biphasic waveform (Type II) without retrograde flow phase and without reduced oscillation, biphasic with reduced oscillation (type III) and flat (monophasic) waveform ( type IV).
Grant EG et al found in their study that Continuous hepatofugal
flow in the portal vein trunk is found with an overall prevalence of 8.