Among various AFs, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most prevalent and potent naturally occurring hepatocarcinogen
for complex multi cellular living organisms (Pizzolitto et al., 2013).
which produce mycotoxins detected on the grain, such as the aflatoxin [B.sub.1], causing a great problem for being a powerful hepatocarcinogen
described in mammals, and is classified in the Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (Prado et al., 2008).
[53,54] The mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatocarcinogen
that contaminates crops, especially maize, groundnuts and sorghum in tropical and subtropical climates such as South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, especially in West Africa.
This mycotoxin is considered by different International Agencies as a genotoxic and potent hepatocarcinogen
. Moreover, other mycotoxins are probably present in the working environment of waste sorting facilities and this aspect should be taken into consideration due to their possible synergistic reactions .
On day 7, the animals received a single dose of the hepatocarcinogen
, IQ, and 12 h afterwards, a two-third partial hepatectomy for initiation, and 2 weeks thereafter, they were placed on a promotion regimen comprising phenobarbital and a single dose of D-galactosamine.
DEHP, is negative in GTx assays, but is an initiator in initiation/promotion studies and is considered to be a hepatocarcinogen
in rodents (IARC, 2013).
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a potent hepatocarcinogen
, is produced from the metabolism of some drugs and found in tobacco smoke, processed meats, soybean, cheese, and wide variety of foods.
Roberts, "Suppression of hepatocyte apoptosis and induction of DNA synthesis by the rat and mouse hepatocarcinogen
diethylhexylphlathate (DEHP) and the mouse hepatocarcinogen
1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB)," Archives of Toxicology, vol.
For instance, after continuously being exposed to a low concentration of microcystin-LR, a hepatocarcinogen
, the human hepatic cell line WRL-68 showed aberrant miRAN expression including the up-regulation of oncogenic miRNA, miR-21, and miR 221 .
The AFB1 is an active hepatocarcinogen
, which can inhibit nucleic acid synthesis by either direct interaction with enzymes involved or by a toxin-DNA template (Windholz et al, 1983).
Aflatoxin B1 is most often found in contaminated human foodstuffs and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen
. The hepatocarcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B1 and HBV are multiplicatively synergistic.