hepatitis C

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Related to hepatitis C: hepatitis E, hepatitis B

Hepatitis C



Hepatitis C is a form of liver inflammation that causes primarily a long-lasting (chronic) disease. Acute (newly developed) hepatitis C is rarely observed as the early disease is generally quite mild. Spread mainly by contact with infected blood, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes most cases of viral liver infection not due to the A and B hepatitis viruses. In fact, before other viral types were found, hepatitis C was referred to as "non-A, non-B hepatitis." It is not a new infection, just newly diagnosable and has been widely present in the U.S. population for decades.


HCV is a blood-borne virus that is and always was the major cause of "transfusion hepatitis," which can develop in patients who are given blood or most blood products except for gamma-globulin. The existence of a third hepatitis virus (besides the A and B viruses) became clear in 1974, but HCV was first identified in 1989. Thereafter, tests were devised to detect the virus in blood units before transfusing them. As a result, since the early 1990s transfused blood is less commonly the cause of hepatitis C.
The hepatitis C form of hepatitis is generally mild in its early, acute stage, but it is much likelier than hepatitis B (85% as compared to 10%) to produce chronic liver disease. Therefore, more than two of every three persons who are infected by HCV may continue to have the virus in their blood and so become carriers, who can transmit the infection to others.
The most common way of transmitting hepatitis C is when blood containing the virus enters another person's circulation through a break in the skin or the mucosa (inner lining) of the mouth or genitals. HCV also can be passed (although uncommonly) from an infected mother to the infant she is carrying. (The risk of infection from breast milk is very low.) Also, HCV can be rarely spread through sexual intercourse. Usually, however, the sexual contacts of chronic carriers of hepatitis C are not infected.
Those at increased risk of developing hepatitis C include:
  • healthcare workers who come in contact with infected blood from a cut or bruise, or from a device or instrument that has been infected ("contaminated")
  • persons who inject illicit drugs into their veins and skin, especially if they share needles and syringes with other users
  • anyone who gets a tattoo or has his or her skin pierced with an infected needle
  • persons with hemophilia (who because they bleed very easily may require large amounts of blood and blood products over time)
  • patients with kidney disease who have periodic dialysis—a treatment that rids their blood of toxic substances—and often requires the patient to have blood transfusions
About one-fourth of patients with hepatitis C do not belong to any of these high-risk groups. Although blood transfusion is a much less common cause of HCV infection than in earlier years, cases still occur. Also, sexual transmission is possible, and may take place with either heterosexual or homosexual behavior.

Causes and symptoms

More than half of all patients who develop hepatitis C have no symptoms or signs of liver disease. Some, however, may have a minor illness with flu-like symptoms. Any form of hepatitis may keep the liver from eliminating certain colored (pigmented) substances as it normally does. These pigments collect in the skin, turning it yellow, and also may cause yellowing of the whites of the eyes. About one in four patients with hepatitis C will develop this yellowing of the skin called jaundice (or yellow jaundice). Some patients lose their appetite and frequently feel tired. Patients may also feel nauseous or even vomit.
In most patients, HCV can still be found in the blood six months after the start of acute infection, and these patients are considered to be carriers. If the virus persists for one year, it is very unlikely to disappear. About 20% of chronic carriers develop cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver when the virus damages or destroys large numbers of liver cells, which are then replaced by scar tissue. Cirrhosis may develop only after a long period of time (as long as 20 years) and often even more has passed. Most (four in five) patients will not develop cirrhosis and instead have a mild, chronic form of infection called chronic persistent hepatitis and when they die, will die with, not of, the infection.
Patients with chronic HCV infection are at risk of developing certain very serious complications:
  • Patients with hepatitis C who develop cirrhosis may go on to have liver cancer—called hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with liver cancer have an average life expectancy measured in months unless the tumor is totally removed.
  • Patients also are at risk of developing a combination of joint pain, weakness, and areas of bleeding into the skin. The kidneys and brain also may be affected. Perhaps 5% of patients with chronic HCV infection develop this condition, called cryoglobulinemia.
  • Patients with porphyria (metabolic disturbances characterized by extreme sensitivity to light) develop blisters in areas of their skin that are exposed to sunlight. The skin also may be easily bruised, and, in time, can become discolored.


Hepatitis C should be suspected if a patient develops jaundice and reports recent contact with the blood of a person who may have been infected. There is a blood test to detect HCV IgG antibody, a substance that the body makes to combat HCV. Care is required, as the test often does not show positive for up to two to three months after infection. Also, the test only shows whether a person has ever been infected by HCV, not whether the virus is still present. A less available and more expensive test measuring HCV RNA (the viral gene) can be found in early infection before the antibody is measurable. Simpler blood tests can be done to show how much jaundice-causing pigment is in a patient's blood, or to measure the levels of certain proteins made by the liver. High levels of these "liver enzymes" (called ALT and AST) indicate that the liver is inflamed. Rising levels could suggest that the infection is getting worse.


Patients who fail to recover promptly may be advised to see a specialist in gastrointestinal disorders (which include liver disease) or infectious diseases. A balanced diet with little fat is best, and patients should limit their alcohol intake, or, better, avoid alcohol altogether. Any medication that can cause liver damage should be avoided. The amount of time in bed depends on how poorly a particular patient feels.
A natural body protein, interferon alpha, now can be made in large amounts by genetic engineering, and improves the outlook for many patients who have chronic hepatitis C. The protein can lessen the symptoms of infection and improve liver function. Not all patients respond, however, and others get less benefit the longer they take interferon. Fever and flu-like symptoms are frequent side effects of this treatment. Using a high dose for six months, nearly half of patients have responded positively. Half the patients who do respond well will relapse after the drug is stopped. A newer medication called ribavirin is now commonly used with interferon and, if tolerated, does increase response rates. A newer form of interferon, called pegylated interferon, is also being used for treatment. Because of the problems with treatment, many people have sought alternative medications such as milk thistle or certain Asian herbs.
When hepatitis destroys most or all of the liver, the only hope may be a liver transplant. Unfortunately the new liver usually becomes infected by HCV. On the other hand, total liver failure is less frequent than in patients with hepatitis B.


In roughly one-fifth of patients who develop hepatitis C, the acute infection will subside, and they will recover completely within four to eight weeks and have no later problems. Other patients face two risks: they themselves may develop chronic liver infection and possibly serious complications such as liver cancer, and, also, they will continue carrying the virus and may pass it on to others. The overall risk of developing cirrhosis, or liver scarring, is about 15% of all patients infected by HCV. Acute liver failure is less frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in those with other forms of hepatitis.


No vaccine has yet been developed to prevent hepatitis C in persons exposed to the virus. In addition, there is no role of gamma-globulin in the prevention of the infection. There are, however, many ways in which infection may be avoided:
  • Those who inject drugs should never share needles, syringes, swabs, spoons, or anything else that comes in contact with bodily fluids. They should always use clean equipment.
  • Hands should be washed before and after contact with another person's blood or if the skin is penetrated.
  • The sharing of personal items should be avoided, particularly those that can puncture the skin or inside of the mouth, such as razors, nail files and scissors, and even toothbrushes.
  • Condoms should be used for either vaginal or oral sex.
If a person does develop hepatitis C, its spread may be prevented by:
  • not donating blood
  • not sharing personal items with others
  • wiping up any spilled blood while using gloves, household bleach, and disposable paper towels
  • carefully covering any cut or wound with a bandaid or dressing
  • practicing safe sex, especially during the acute phase of the infection

Key terms

Antibody — A substance formed in the body in response to a foreign body, such as a virus, which can attack and destroy the invading foreign body or virus.
Carrier — A person who, after recovering from a viral infection, continues to "carry" the virus in the blood and can pass it on to others who then may develop infection.
Contamination — Passage of an infectious organism, such as a virus, from an infected person to an object such as a needle, which then, when used, may pass infection to another person.
Hepatocellular carcinoma — A dangerous cancer of the liver that may develop in patients who have had hepatitis, sometimes as long as 20 or 30 years earlier.
Porphyria — Any of a group of disturbances of porphyrin metabolism characterized by excess pophyrins (various biologically active compounds with a distinct structure) in the urine and by extreme sensitivity to light.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis type C

(NANB); principal cause of non-A, non-B posttransfusion hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that is classified with the Flaviviridae family. The incubation period is 6-8 weeks with about 75% of infections subclinical and giving rise to chronic persistent infection. A high percentage of these develop chronic liver disease leading to cirrhosis and possible hepatocellular carcinoma.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

hepatitis C

A viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that often persists in the blood serum, can cause chronic liver damage, and is usually transmitted by infected blood products (as through transfusion), contaminated needles, or exposure to infected bodily fluids through sexual intercourse.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

hepatitis C

Non-A, non-B hepatitis Infectious disease A transfusion-related hepatitis Epidemiology ± 4 million people–US have HC; 8000-10,000 die/yr; 1000 require liver transplants Diagnosis EIA-2; supplemental RIBA-2 and/or RNA PCR testing; HCV genotyping for prognosis Prognosis13 of Pts with HCV progress to cirrhosis within 20 yrs Lab Screen for HCV with anti-HCV antibodies, ↓ the risk for seroconversion from 0.45%/unit transfused to 0.03% Complications Cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, possibly due to glomerular deposits of immune complexes containing HCV, anti-HCV IgG, and IgM rheumatoid factors Management IFN-α results in histologic reversal and ALA response Prognosis 20% with post-transfusion hepatitis develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver CA
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hep·a·ti·tis C

A viral hepatitis, usually mild but often progressing to a chronic stage; the most prevalent type of posttransfusion hepatitis.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

hepatitis C

Formerly called hepatitis non-A, non-B, this liver disease is caused by a small single-stranded RNA virus, 30–38 nm in diameter known as the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The disease occurs world-wide and is spread mainly by intravenous drug abuse, tattooing, needle-stick injuries, inadequately-sterilized medical equipment and transfusion of blood or blood products. Sexual transmission occurs, but is rare. Only a minority of infected people develop symptoms and the clinical course is usually mild with jaundice in only 10 per cent. Unfortunately the infection persists in about 80 per cent of cases and 20–30% develop CIRRHOSIS of the liver within 30 years of acquiring the infection.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Patient discussion about hepatitis C

Q. Is Hepatitis C contagious? My Girlfriend is a carrier for Hepatitis C. She got infected from a blood transfusion as a kid. Can I catch it from her?

A. yes,through oral and sexual intercourse,dont have oral sex and wear a comdom.

Q. What is the difference between hepatitis c and hepatitis b? and also can it be possible to have a false positive on a Hepatitis B test?

A. The main difference is that they are both caused by different viruses… they are both very unpleasant diseases , I hope you don’t have any one of them. the other differences are that most people (80% or so) exposed to the hep B virus clear it on their own, through their own body's immune response system. With hep C, only about 15-20% of those exposed to it clear it through their own immune system; the rest go on to have chronic, active hepatitis c.
he other major difference is that hep B can progress directly to liver cancer (without progressing to cirrhosis first, as hep c does).
Here is an explanation about the tests:

Q. What is the difference between hepatitis c and hepatitis b? and also can it be possible to have a false positive on a Hepatitis B test?

A. They are caused by two different viruses. Don’t let the similar name fool you. They have a different outcomes also. About the test- Here is a bit of information about the tests:
this will help you understand them and check out for yourself what the results means.
There is a chance to a false positive.

More discussions about hepatitis C
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References in periodicals archive ?
No amount of hepatitis B vaccine or hepatitis B and hepatitis C drugs can control the spread of viral hepatitis if there is no monitoring of at-risk communities, no information about disease prevention and management, or no training for primary healthcare professionals to diagnose and refer cases to clinicians to treat the diseases.
'Hepatitis C cases can now be cured in just three months, and this saves lives.
He claimed that which was rejected by patients that hepatitis B drugs are available at Centers and only hepatitis C medicines are not available there.
One Hundred forty eight patients (81.3%) were diagnosed with Hepatitis C, 32 patients (17.6%) with Hepatitis B and a single patient (0.5%) suffered from both Hepatitis B and C simultaneously.
According to reliable information obtained from Polyclinic, over 2,000 Hepatitis C patients sought treatment at the hospital during the last 12 months.
Hepatitis C treatment consist of ribavirin and interferon, generally in the pegylated, longer-lasting form, which boosts the body's own immune system, most of the new drugs work differently, attacking the virus itself.8 Chronic hepatitis B and C can lead to serious complications like scarring of liver (cirrhosis), liver cancer, liver failure, inflammation of blood vessels and anemia.
Hepatitis C was tested using 3rd generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
These efforts are made easier by the declining price of hepatitis C medicines.
He inform that according to the World Health Organization (WHO) in one hundred people there were seven people of hepatitis C patients while 5 people were Hepatitis B patients, adding that health practioners having reservations of the WHO report.
The World Health Organization estimates that 240 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B, while 130-150 million people globally have chronic Hepatitis C infection.
[USPRwire, Fri Feb 12 2016] Global Markets Direct's, 'Hepatitis C - Pipeline Review, H2 2015', provides an overview of the Hepatitis C's therapeutic pipeline.
Similar to HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are blood-borne, having similar transmission routes like sexual contact for hepatitis B and injection drug use and sexual contact for hepatitis C.
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