Molecular mechanisms of hepatic bile
salt transport from sinusoidal blood into bile.
The ultrasonographic criteria for diagnosing AAC include: (1) gallbladder distention; (2) thickening of the gallbladder wall (>3.5mm); (3) no acoustic shadow or biliary sludge; (4) perivesical liquid accumulation , and (5) no dilation of the intra- and extra hepatic bile
(4) The oxysterol liver X receptor (LXR) plays a major role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, stimulating hepatic bile
acid synthesis, modulating intestinal cholesterol absorption, and enhancing the expression of many of the genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport.
In typical biliary duct course, the lateral hepatic bile
duct supplying segments VI and VII and the paramedian hepatic bile
duct supplying segments V and VIII reunite to form the right hepatic bile
Benign biliary cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas are rare cystic neoplasms which usually arise in the liver or, less frequently, in the extra hepatic bile
ducts or the gall bladder.
Overexpression of cholesterol 7[alpha]-hydroxylase promotes hepatic bile
acid synthesis and secretion and maintains cholesterol homeostasis.
(4) Small studies have recommended combining octreotide acetate and a low fat diet with stenting to decrease hepatic bile
It was seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography imaging (Figure 1a) and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography imaging (Figure 1 b) that the right lobe posterior segment bile duct opened to the segment II bile duct and that the segment II bile duct merged with the common trunk of segment III and segment IV bile ducts, thus forming the left hepatic bile
The pericholedochal nodes receive lymphatics from the extra hepatic bile
duct and from the right lobe of the liver.