is routinely used to avoid these complications.
The risk of haematoma formation associated with cardiac surgery and systemic heparinisation
is yet to be quantified but may be as high as 1:2,400 (Hemmerling et al 2008).
is the most common form of anticoagulation utilised due its short half-life and cost (Cronin & Reilly, 2010), and is widely used in people with little to no risk of bleeding.
given and standard aorta bicavalcanulation was done.
The abdomen was closed and uterus packed in anticipation of potential further bleeding secondary to the systemic heparinisation
required for CPB.
of acutely ill hospital patients with HIV-1 infection and/ or TB will reduce the incidence of venous thrombosis.
Conventional open surgery carried a high mortality rate with the need for a left thoracotomy, aortic clamping, and heparinisation
with extracorporeal bypass in a patient with multi-system injury, including head and abdominal trauma and associated long bone fractures.
* Residual anticoagulation from heparinisation
of the haemodialysis circuit.
These recommendations are mainly based on the fact that several early trials have demonstrated that thrombolytic therapy is more effective than heparinisation
in restoring haemodynamic stability and decreasing clot exposure (12-14).
All patients were dialysed within the transplant unit using regional heparinisation
. This consisted of a double pump which infused heparin pre dialyser and protamine to counteract the effects of the heparin post dialyser.
The remainder of the post bypass management is similar to other cardiac procedures: maintenance of adequate hemodynamics, reversal of heparinisation
, administration of blood products as indicated and preparation for transfer to the intensive care unit.
This review included advice for patients with TAVI who present for non-cardiac surgery, stating that antiplatelet drugs could be stopped and that full heparinisation
was not needed in such cases.