Table 1: Detail of snakebite surveillance Parameters Value (%) Age distribution Children (<15 years) 99 (13.1) Adult (>15 years) 658 (86.9) Gender distribution Male 437 (57.7) Female 321 (42.3) Seasonal variation Pre-monsoon 135 (17.8) Monsoon 472 (62.3) Post-monsoon 151 (19.9) Type of toxicity Neurotoxic 319 (42.1) Hemotoxic
439 (57.9) Epidemiological aspect The crude incidence 21.65/10000 Annual age-standardized mortality rates 1.1/100,000 Geographical location Urban 89 (11.8) Rural 669 (88.2) Reporting unit PHCs 143 (18.9) CHCs 440 (58.1) District hospital 175 (23.0) PHCs: Primary Health Centers, CHCs: Community Health Centers
While considered effective against the hemotoxic
effects of all North American Rattlesnakes, Copperheads, and Cottonmouths, it is not effective against the Mojave Rattlesnake's neurotoxins.
DISCUSSION: This study was conducted to determine the correlation of coagulation profile with the severity of hemotoxic
snake envenomation and its prognostic significance.
venom injected by vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads and water moccasins) is spread more quickly throughout the victim's body by movement.
, flesh-liquefying venom had destroyed too much tissue.
A rattlesnake's venom is mainly hemotoxic
, while a cobra's is neurotoxic.
The cytokines, as it is known, are traditionally subdivided into several groups: interleukins (IL)--factors of interaction between leucocytes; interferons (IFN)--cytokines with antiviral activity; the tumor necrosis factors (TNF), cytokines, strengthening cytotoxic activity; colony-stimulating factors--hemopoietic cytokines; hemotoxic
cytokines (Ignatov, 2002; Yarlin, 1997).
Feeds mainly on small frogs and lizards that kill by injection of a venom with proteolytic, hemotoxic
and neurotoxic properties (Lemoine et al.
The formation of MetHb is the first hemotoxic
response in the induction of hemolytic anemia, which is defined as the premature removal of mature erythrocytes from the circulation following chemical exposure.
effect of Loxosceles reclusa venom: in vivo and in vitro.
Holothurians are known to contain triterpene glycosides, which show fungitoxic, hemotoxic
, and cytotoxic activities (Stonik and Elyakov, 1988).
Aflatoxin Ochratoxin and Zearalenone have gained immense importance due to carcinogenic hepatotoxic hemotoxic
immunotoxic neurotoxic genotoxic and teratogenic biological activities (Mobarak 2007).