hemorrhoid


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hemorrhoid

 [hem´ŏ-roid]
an enlarged (varicose) vein in the mucous membrane inside or just outside the rectum; called also pile.

Internal hemorrhoids usually are first noticed when minor bleeding occurs with defecation. Pain occurs rarely, unless there is an associated disorder such as an anal fissure, thrombosis, or strangulation of the affected vein. External hemorrhoids produce varying degrees of pain, feelings of pressure, itching, irritation, and a palpable mass. Bleeding occurs only if the external hemorrhoid is injured or ulcerated and begins to break down.

Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins of the anus. Prolonged sitting, constipation, and hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass can lead to straining and sitting at stool for long periods of time, all of which add pressure on the anal veins. Failure to follow through on the urge to defecate can also lead to hemorrhoids. In women, probably the single most common cause is pregnancy.

External hemorrhoids can be treated by local applications of cold and an astringent cream, by sitz baths, and by avoidance of constipation. Internal hemorrhoids may require sclerosing or cryosurgery to obliterate the affected tissue. More advanced, chronic hemorrhoids usually must be removed surgically by ligation and excision (hemorrhoidectomy) or by barron ligation.
Types of hemorrhoids.
external hemorrhoid one distal to the pectinate line.
internal hemorrhoid one originating above the pectinate line and covered by mucous membrane.
prolapsed hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has descended below the pectinate line and protruded outside the anal sphincter.
strangulated hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has prolapsed sufficiently and for a long enough time for its blood supply to become occluded by the constricting action of the anal sphincter.

hem·or·rhoid

(hem'ŏ-royd), Avoid the misspelling hemroid and its many variants.
Denoting one of the tumors or varices constituting hemorrhoids.

hemorrhoid

(hĕm′ə-roid′)
n.
1. An itching or painful mass of dilated veins in swollen anal tissue.
2. hemorrhoids The pathological condition in which such painful masses occur. Also called piles.

hemorrhoid

(hem'o-royd) [Gr. haimorrhois]
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HEMORRHOID
Veins of the internal or external hemorrhoidal plexuses and the immediately surrounding tissues. Hemorrhoids are most often referred to only when diseased (i.e., enlarged, painful, bleeding). Other anorectal conditions (e.g., anal fissure, condylomata, anal cancers) may produce similar symptoms and must be distinguished from hemorrhoids by appropriate examination. Synonym: pilesillustration;

Treatment

Therapy depends on the severity of the symptoms, not the extent of the hemorrhoids. In many instances, the only therapy required is improvement in anal care, adherence to appropriate fluid intake and diet if necessary, and administration of stool softeners to prevent straining to have a bowel movement. Measures to reduce local pain and congestion include the temporary use of local anesthetic agents, lubrication, cold compresses, warm sitz baths, and thermal packs. The necessity of surgery or other modalities of direct intervention (e.g., latex band ligation, sclerotherapy, cryosurgery, infrared photocoagulation, laser surgery) need not be applied until the acute process resolves except in cases of significant bleeding, intractable pain, recurrent episodes, and various individualized considerations. See: hemorrhoidectomy

external hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located at or distal to the pectinate line (dentate margin), covered by anodermal epithelium or skin and extremely sensitive to most stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.

internal hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located proximal to the pectinate line, covered by mucous membrane and relatively insensitive to direct noxious stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.

mixed (or combined) hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid that incorporates both internal and external components.
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PROLAPSED HEMORRHOIDS

prolapsed hemorrhoid

The protrusion of an internal hemorrhoid through the anus.
illustration

strangulated hemorrhoid

A prolapsed hemorrhoid that is trapped by the anal sphincter, thus compromising blood flow to the vein in the hemorrhoid.

Hemorrhoid

An area around the anus where veins become dilated and the tissue swells, causing itching and pain.
Mentioned in: Enterobiasis

Patient discussion about hemorrhoid

Q. What are hemorrhoids?

A. Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal. This common problem can be painful, but it’s usually not serious.

Veins can swell inside the anal canal to form internal hemorrhoids. Or they can swell near the opening of the anus to form external hemorrhoids. You can have both types at the same time. The symptoms and treatment depend on which type you have.

Source: WebMD

Q. What are the symptoms of hemorrhoids? My husband complains that when he goes to the bathroom he bleeds. Does this mean he has hemorrhoids?

A. The commonest symptom of internal hemorrhoids is bright red blood in the toilet bowl or on one's feces or toilet paper. However, Many anorectal problems, including fissures, fistulae, abscesses, or irritation and itching (pruritus ani), have similar symptoms and are incorrectly referred to as hemorrhoids. If he is also in pain, then go see a Doctor.

Q. How to prevent Hemorrhoids? My brother is suffering from Hemorrhoids. I am very worried about getting them to and want to know how can I prevent them?

A. it's time to change to a healthier diet..one with fibers and vegetables.avoid causes like: Increased straining during bowel movements,portal hypertension, Obesity and Excessive consumption of alcohol or caffeine.

More discussions about hemorrhoid
References in periodicals archive ?
Table-I: Comparison of patients' characteristics between hemorrhoids and control groups.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016 on patients reporting to the OPD of department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi with complaints of bleeding per rectum and diagnosed as a case of bleeding non-prolapsed hemorrhoids fulfilling the sample selection criteria.
Hemorrhoids may result from straining during bowel movements or from the increased pressure on these veins during pregnancy, among other causes.
Self-Help Strategies The primary recommendation for easing hemorrhoids is to boost your fiber intake and drink plenty of fluids, since this will help alleviate constipation.
Perianal melanoma disguised as hemorrhoids: case report and discussion.
In many instances, symptomatic hemorrhoids can be managed and even prevented with changes to your diet and bowel habits, along with simple over-the-counter treatments.
In this period, surgical interventions were performed in 365 patients diagnosed with hemorrhoids. Thirty-one (8.5%) cases could not be reached by telephone.
For those younger than age 40 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy is recommended, even if it's obvious that the patient has external thrombosed hemorrhoids that are bleeding.
Nearly 19.7% of HIV-infected patients also have perianal diseases including hemorrhoids [18].
Firstly described by Milligan and Morgan in 1937 [19], the open hemorrhoidectomy involves a full-thickness excision of the affected mucosa and submucosa: the hemorrhoid is grasped using a forceps and an ellipsoidal incision is made at its base; scissors are used to dissect the remaining hemorrhoid.
"There are literally millions of American's who suffer from hemorrhoids while managing high blood pressure.
"Med-Rite Labs' research and development has resulted in the most effective and innovative treatment available in the market for hemorrhoid relief.