hemorrhagic cystitis


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cystitis

 [sis-ti´tis]
inflammation of the urinary bladder; it may result from an ascending infection coming from the exterior of the body by way of the urethra, or from an infection descending from the kidney. A simple cystitis that does not involve the rest of the urinary tract is not as serious as the descending type in which the kidneys and ureters as well as the bladder are involved. Often cystitis is not an isolated infection but is a result of some other physical condition, such as urinary retention, calculi in the bladder, tumors, or neurologic diseases that impair normal bladder function.

Prevention of recurrent cystitis in females that is not attributable to abnormal structures or other factors mentioned previously may be achieved by good personal hygiene and the following measures: (1) always wipe the anal region from front to back after a bowel movement; (2) avoid wearing nylon pantyhose, tight slacks, or any clothing that traps perineal moisture and prevents evaporation; (3) do not wash underclothing in strong soap, and rinse underclothing well; (4) do not use bubble bath, perfumed soap, feminine hygiene sprays, or products containing hexachlorophene; (5) avoid prolonged bicycling, motorcycling, horseback riding, and traveling involving prolonged sitting, which can contribute to irritation of the urethral meatus and to development of an ascending cystitis; and (6) do not ignore vaginal discharge or other signs of vaginal infection.
Symptoms and Treatment. The most common symptoms of cystitis are dysuria, frequency and urgency of urination, and in some cases hematuria. Chills and fever indicate involvement of the entire urinary tract and are not symptomatic of uncomplicated cystitis. Treatment of acute cystitis consists of antimicrobials, forcing of fluids, and bed rest. Hot sitz baths give some relief of the discomfort, and spasms of the bladder wall may respond to an antispasmodic drug such as hyoscyamine. Chronic cystitis is more difficult to cure and may require surgical dilatation of the urethra to facilitate drainage of urine. In many cases removal of the underlying cause, such as chronic vaginal infection, relieves the cystitis.
cystitis col´li inflammation of the bladder and bladder neck.
hemorrhagic cystitis cystitis with severe hemorrhage, a dose-limiting toxic condition with administration of ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, or a complication of bone marrow transplantation.
interstitial cystitis a type seen mainly in women, with the inflammatory lesion a small patch of red to brown mucosa surrounded by a network of radiating vessels, usually in the vertex and involving the entire thickness of the wall. The lesions are known as Hunner's ulcers and often heal superficially so that they are difficult to detect.
radiation cystitis inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder caused by ionizing radiation; called also radiocystitis.

hem·or·rhag·ic cys·ti·tis

bladder inflammation with macroscopic hematuria. Generally the result of a chemical or other traumatic insult to the bladder (chemotherapy, radiation therapy).

hem·or·rhag·ic cys·ti·tis

(hem'ŏr-aj'ik sis-tī'tis)
Bladder inflammation with macroscopic hematuria. Generally the result of a chemical or other traumatic insult to the bladder (chemotherapy, radiation therapy).
Synonym(s): haemorrhagic cystitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hemorrhagic cystitis is defined by the presence of hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, frequency, or urgency, in the absence of other potential contributing factors such as vaginal bleeding or bacterial or fungal urinary tract infections.
AlloVir has been developing Viralym-M to treat a range of such active virus-associated diseases, including BK hemorrhagic cystitis, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, JC virus and human herpesvirus 6.
Amifostine and glutathione prevent ifosfamide- and acrolein-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol2007; 59: 71-77, doi: 10.1007/s00280-006-0248-z.
Association of BK virus with failure of prophylaxis against hemorrhagic cystitis following bone marrow transplantation.
[9] reported successful treatment of radiation-induced severe hemorrhagic cystitis with oral administration of prednisolone and resolved macroscopic hematuria within 2 weeks.
Leite et al., "Chemotherapy-induced hemorrhagic cystitis: pathogenesis, pharmacological approaches and new insights," Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine, vol.
Boorjian, "Cystectomy for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis: contemporary etiology, presentation and outcomes," Journal of Urology, vol.
Successful treatment of severe hemorrhagic cystitis after hemopoietic cell transplantation by selective embolization of the vesical arteries.
35 (18.6) Symptom days before care sought, median 5 (0-21) (range) Diagnostic method PCR 51 (27.1) Immunofluorescence 137 (72.9) Type 4 40 (21.3) 7 86 (45.7) Others (1, 2, 3, 5, 11) 33 (17.6) Unknown 29 (15.4) Syndrome Upper respiratory tract infection 107 (56.9) Acute laryngotracheobronchitis 1 (0.5) Bronchiolitis/bronchitis 13 (6.9) Tonsillitis 11 (5.9) Otitis media 2 (1.1) Conjunctivitis 0 Pneumonia 35 (18.6) Gastroenteritis 15 (8.0) Disseminated adenovirus 1 (0.5) Hemorrhagic cystitis 3 (1.6) Mechanical ventilation 13 (6.9) Hospitalization days, median (range) 4 (1 -247) Died 6 (3.2) * Values are no.
Hogan et al., "Efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis of polyomavirus BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients," Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol.
Other options to treat hemorrhagic cystitis are desirable and studies in experimental animals have shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids, or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may exert protective effects on the urinary tract in cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide-induced cystitis [7-10].