hemoptysis


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Hemoptysis

 

Definition

Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or bloody sputum from the lungs or airway. It may be either self-limiting or recurrent. Massive hemoptysis is defined as 200-600 mL of blood coughed up within a period of 24 hours or less.

Description

Hemoptysis can range from small quantities of bloody sputum to life-threatening amounts of blood. The patient may or may not have chest pain.

Causes and symptoms

Hemoptysis can be caused by a range of disorders:
  • Infections. These include pneumonia; tuberculosis; aspergillosis; and parasitic diseases, including ascariasis, amebiasis, and paragonimiasis.
  • Tumors that erode blood vessel walls.
  • Drug abuse. Cocaine can cause massive hemoptysis.
  • Trauma. Chest injuries can cause bleeding into the lungs.
  • Vascular disorders, including aneurysms, pulmonary embolism, and malformations of the blood vessels.
  • Bronchitis. Its most common cause is long-term smoking.
  • Foreign object(s) in the airway.
  • Blood clotting disorders.
  • Bleeding following such surgical procedures as bronchial biopsies and heart catheterization.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of hemoptysis is complicated by the number of possible causes.

Patient history

It is important for the doctor to distinguish between blood from the lungs and blood coming from the nose, mouth, or digestive tract. Patients may aspirate, or breathe, blood from the nose or stomach into their lungs and cough it up. They may also swallow blood from the chest area and then vomit. The doctor will ask about stomach ulcers, repeated vomiting, liver disease, alcoholism, smoking, tuberculosis, mitral valve disease, or treatment with anticoagulant medications.

Physical examination

The doctor will examine the patient's nose, throat, mouth, and chest for bleeding from these areas and for signs of chest trauma. The doctor also listens to the patient's breathing and heartbeat for indications of heart abnormalities or lung disease.

Laboratory tests

Laboratory tests include blood tests to rule out clotting disorders, and to look for food particles or other evidence of blood from the stomach. Sputum can be tested for fungi, bacteria, or parasites.

X ray and bronchoscopy

Chest x rays and bronchoscopy are the most important studies for evaluating hemoptysis. They are used to evaluate the cause, location, and extent of the bleeding. The bronchoscope is a long, flexible tube used to identify tumors or remove foreign objects.

Imaging and other tests

Computed tomography scans (CT scans) are used to detect aneurysms and to confirm x-ray results. Ventilation-perfusion scanning is used to rule out pulmonary embolism. The doctor may also order an angiogram to rule out pulmonary embolism, or to locate a source of bleeding that could not be seen with the bronchoscope.
In spite of the number of diagnostic tests, the cause of hemoptysis cannot be determined in 20-30% of cases.

Treatment

Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening emergency that requires treatment in an intensive care unit. The patient will be intubated (the insertion of a tube to help breathing) to protect the airway, and to allow evaluation of the source of the bleeding. Patients with lung cancer, bleeding from an aneurysm (blood clot), or persistent traumatic bleeding require chest surgery.
Patients with tuberculosis, aspergillosis, or bacterial pneumonia are given antibiotics.
Foreign objects are removed with a bronchoscope.
If the cause cannot be determined, the patient is monitored for further developments.

Prognosis

The prognosis depends on the underlying cause. In cases of massive hemoptysis, the mortality rate is about 15%. The rate of bleeding, however, is not a useful predictor of the patient's chances for recovery.

Key terms

Aneurysm — A sac formed by the dilation of the wall of an artery, vein, or heart; it is filled with clotted blood or fluid.
Angiography — A technique for imaging the blood vessels by injecting a substance that is opaque to x rays.
Aspergillosis — A lung infection caused by the mold Aspergillus fumigatus.
Intubation — The insertion of a tube into a body canal or hollow organ, as into the trachea or stomach.
Pulmonary embolism — The blocking of an artery in the lung by a blood clot.

Resources

Books

Stauffer, John L. "Lung." In Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 1998, edited by Stephen McPhee, et al., 37th ed. Stamford: Appleton & Lange, 1997.

hemoptysis

 [he-mop´tĭ-sis]
coughing and spitting of blood as a result of bleeding from any part of the respiratory tract. In true hemoptysis the sputum is bright red and frothy with air bubbles; it must not be confused with the dark red or black color of hematemesis. 

Although recent developments in drug therapy have reduced the incidence of serious bleeding in tuberculous patients, tuberculosis remains a common cause of hemoptysis. Other causes may be bronchitis, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, or malignancy. In acute pneumonia the sputum may be bright red or it may contain old blood which gives it a characteristic rusty appearance. Vascular disorders such as congestive heart failure and pulmonary infarction can also cause hemoptysis.

Patient care includes placing the affected lung in the dependent position and keeping the airway free of blood either by coughing or suctioning. Although violent coughing is not desirable, the patient can be instructed to cough with the glottis open and without straining. Selective bronchial intubation, bronchial embolization, or surgery may be required if bleeding persists.
parasitic hemoptysis a disease due to infection of the lungs with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus, with cough and spitting of blood and gradual deterioration of health.

he·mop·ty·sis

(hē-mop'ti-sis),
Spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as a result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.
Synonym(s): bronchostaxis
[hemo- + G. ptysis, a spitting]

hemoptysis

(hĭ-mŏp′tĭ-sĭs)
n.
The expectoration of blood or of blood-streaked sputum from the larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.

hemoptysis

The passage of blood by mouth

he·mop·ty·sis

(hē-mop'ti-sis)
The spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as a result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.
Synonym(s): haemoptysis.
[hemo- + G. ptysis, a spitting]

he·mop·ty·sis

(hē-mop'ti-sis)
Spitting of blood derived from lungs or bronchial tubes as a result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.
Synonym(s): haemoptysis.
[hemo- + G. ptysis, a spitting]
References in periodicals archive ?
Chrysofakis, "A prospective analysis of 184 hemoptysis cases-diagnostic impact of chest X-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy," Respiration, vol.
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may present with several signs and symptoms including cough, hemoptysis, fever, and dyspnea and with mild-to-severe forms of respiratory distress which usually follow a progressive course.
Even still, endobronchial hamartomas rarely grow large enough to produce symptoms, with hemoptysis being the most common.
All patients were given conservative treatment for the control of hemoptysis, irrespective of the amount of blood expectorated, along with necessary measures for management of the primary disease.
No procedure-related complications occurred and the patient experienced no further hemoptysis during a follow-up period of 9 months.
Centrally located masses are more commonly associated with symptoms of dyspnoea, chest pain, hemoptysis or pneumonitis and peripheral lesions are often asymptomatic or simply a non-productive cough.
emphysema, cardiac arrhythmias, and hemoptysis. The tracheal aspirates had high viscosity, and the specimens were thus diluted; 0.1 mL of tracheal aspirate was diluted with 0.9 mL of normal saline.
A 26-year-old man diagnosed with BD was hospitalized with cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and weight loss.
However it might cause symptoms of cough, shortness of breath, hemoptysis and fever; or present as a feature of its complications especially when it gets ruptured or infected 2,11,13.
Embolization of multiple Rasmussen aneurysms as a treatment of hemoptysis. Radiology 1994;193:396-398.