hemolytic uremic syndrome


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hemolytic

 [he″mo-lit´ik]
pertaining to, characterized by, or producing hemolysis.
hemolytic anemia anemia caused by the increased destruction of erythrocytes. A frequently fatal type occurs in infants as a result of Rh incompatibility with the mother's blood (see Rh factor and erythroblastosis fetalis). Other types result from mismatched blood transfusions; from industrial poisons such as benzene, trinitrotoluene (TNT), or aniline; and from hypersensitivity to certain antibiotics and tranquilizers (drug-induced hemolytic anemia). Another important cause is mechanical obstruction caused by microvascular or valvular abnormalities. In addition, it sometimes occurs as a result of a disorder of the immune response in which B-cell–produced antibodies fail to recognize the body's own erythrocytes and directly attack and destroy them (autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Finally, some types of hemolytic anemia appear in the course of other diseases such as leukemia, hodgkin's disease, other types of cancer, acute alcoholism, and liver diseases. Along with the usual symptoms of anemia, the patient may exhibit jaundice. If the cause of the condition can be determined, and if it can be successfully treated, there is a good chance of recovery. steroids and transfusion therapy are used to treat some types. In other cases, surgical removal of the spleen may bring about great improvement.
hemolytic disease of newborn erythroblastosis fetalis.
hemolytic jaundice a rare, chronic, and generally hereditary disease characterized by periods of excessive hemolysis due to abnormal fragility of the erythrocytes, which are small and spheroidal. It is accompanied by enlargement of the spleen and by jaundice. The hereditary form is also known as familial acholuric jaundice; there is also a rare acquired form. See also hyperbilirubinemia.
hemolytic uremic syndrome a form of thrombotic microangiopathy with renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia and purpura, usually seen in children but occurring at any age. Some authorities consider it identical to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

he·mo·lyt·ic u·re·mic syn·drome

[MIM*235400]
hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia occurring with acute renal failure; in children, characterized by sudden onset of gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, oliguria, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; in adults, associated with complications of pregnancy following normal delivery, or associated with oral contraceptive use or with infection; often caused by infection with Escherichia coli.

he·mo·lyt·ic u·re·mic syn·drome

(hē'mō-lit'ik yūr-ē'mik sin'drōm)
Combination of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia that occurs with acute renal failure. In children, characterized by sudden onset of gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, oliguria, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia in association with intestinal infection by Shigella, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli strain O157:H7; in adults, associated with complications of pregnancy following normal delivery, with oral contraceptive use, or with infection.
Synonym(s): haemolytic uremic syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tailored eculizumab therapy in the management of complement factor H-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in an adult kidney transplant recipient case report.
* The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (Nondiarrhea- Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome) and enlists all their major and minor projects
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: what is it, how is it diagnosed, and how is it treated?
"Neurological involvement in a child with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome." PEriksson KJ, Boyd SG, Tasker RC.
Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2008; 23(11):1951-1956.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic-purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome in children and adolescents.
Complement factor H and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. J Exp Med 2007;204:1245-1248.
Tsai, "A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome," Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 2014.
Kranz et al., "An outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 hemolytic uremic syndrome in Germany: presentation and short-term outcome in children," Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.
SAN FRANCISCO -- Treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157 infection with beta-lactams is associated with increased risk for post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome in both children and adults, according to findings from a population-based study.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (characterized by schistocytes and helmet cells, as shown in Fig.
In another advancement for this age group, the FDA approved Soliris (eculizumab) to treat patients with atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS), a rare and chronic blood disease that can lead to kidney (renal) failure and that is associated with increased risk of death and stroke.