Note the position of the diaphragm and look for possible free air under one hemidiaphragm
or the other.
The patients with radiological lesion (Chest x-ray) suggestive of collapse with direct signs like displacement of interlobar fissures, crowding of vessels and bronchi and indirect signs like local increase in opacity, elevation of hemidiaphragm
, displacement of mediastinum, compensatory overinflation, displacement of the hila, approximation of ribs, absence of air bronchogram (In cases of resorption collapse only), absence of visibility of interlobar artery (In cases of lower lobe atelectasis only) are included in the study.
The large tumor occupied nearly total left hemidiaphragm
. In the operative finding, it revealed no direct invasion to diaphragm but only adhesion onto the surface.
Chest wall, hemidiaphragm
, liver (right) and spleen (left) can be identified.
Large lesions may cause lung hyperexpansion with mediastinal shift or flattening of the hemidiaphragm
A posterolateral thoracotomy was continued at the level of the seventh intercostal space, with the hemidiaphragm
being thinned, although with moderate thickness of muscle fibers (Figure 8).
Chilaiditi's sign is asymptomatic interposition of the bowel at hepatic flexure of colon between the liver and right hemidiaphragm
visible on chest X-ray, which is usually performed for some cardiorespiratory illness.
The right hemidiaphragm
is easily visualized because of the large acoustic window of the liver, while visualization of the left hemidiaphragm
is more difficult because of a smaller window of the spleen.
When the tumor extends beyond its capsule and invades the surrounding tissue, then more severe symptoms can occur, such as superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, hemidiaphragm
paralysis (phrenic nerve involvement), and hoarseness (recurrent laryngeal nerve infiltration).
Secondly, the rates of PPC like suspected pneumonia (patient receives antibiotics and meets at least one of the following criteria: new or changed sputum, new or changed lung opacities on chest X-ray when clinically indicated, tympanic temperature >38.3[degrees]C, and white blood cell (WBC) count >12 * [10.sup.9]/L in the absence of other infectious focus) and atelectasis (opacification of the lung with shift of the mediastinum, hemidiaphragm
toward the affected area, and compensatory overinflation in the adjacent nonatelectatic lung)  were also documented.
The midcostal region of the left hemidiaphragm
with the phrenic nerve attached was removed and prepared for in vitro measurement of the antagonistic actions of neostigmine.
Compressive atelectasis of the lower lobe was seen with flattening of hemidiaphragm