The tubes provide a key missing link that connects the two main hemichordate
Although the two phyla appear quite different today, chordates are often linked with the hemichordates
and another dissimilar phylum, the echinoderms, which include starfish.
Identical genomic organization of two hemichordate
2009), and the rnicroRNA analysis included only three hemichordate
A 95% majority rule consensus tree for hemichordates
(40 million generations) was constructed from concatenated, but unlinked nucleotide sequences (with no regions excluded) in MrBayes 3.
Deuterostome evolution: early development of the enteropneust hemichordate
This inquiry was not an effort to illuminate phylogeny but merely to determine which of the well-studied animals have sequences most similar to those of this hemichordate
Isolation of Hox and Parahox genes in the hemichordate
Ptychodera flava and the evolution of deuterostome Hox genes.
It thus appears that a dipleurula-type larva with single ciliary band topology, as seen in the holothuroid auricularia and the hemichordate
tornaria, is a basal feature of the Ambulacraria.
Feeding rate in a deposit-feeding hemichordate
was strongly correlated with sediment chlorophyll a concentrations (Karrh and Miller, 1994).
Until now, the earliest deuterostomes scientists have discovered were between 510 and 520 million years old, when they had already begun to diversify into vertebrates, sea squirts, echinoderms such as starfish and sea urchins, and hemichordates
(Saccoglossus kowalevskii), echinoderms (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and some vertebrates (see Table 2 for GenBank sequence accession numbers for the data in Fig.