Serological studies, such as indirect hemagglutination test
, ELISA, and indirect fluorescent antibody, are useful in the diagnosis.
The diagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed by passive hemagglutination test
(the titer was 1/160).
Indirect hemagglutination test
(IHA) was found to be positive (1/320).
The indirect hemagglutination test
(IH) was performed in serum using the TOXO-HAI Kit (Gold Analyses Diagnostic Ltd, MG, Brazil), according to the manufacturer's recommendations; a positive (cut-off) dilution was[greater than or equal to]1:32.
mansoni indirect hemagglutination test
(titer 1:40, threshold 1:160; Bilharziosis Fumouze; https://www.biosynex.com/).
Treponema pallidum indirect hemagglutination test
(1/10240) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test (1/10) resulted positive.
2- Hemagglutination test
according to Duguid method (Duguid, 1959).
To detect the level of maternal antibodies during different period, a total of 10 piglets were selected and the serum samples were collected at different days after first time immunization using the swine foot and mouth disease type O vaccine (Wenzhou animal disease prevention and control center, Wenzhou, China), i.e., 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 days after and the antibody titer was determined by indirect hemagglutination test
(Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences).
However indirect hemagglutination test
and ELISA are the most commonly used methods for the detection of anti-Echinococcus antibodies.
The ABO and RhD phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test
using microgel technique (ABO/D+Reverse Grouping, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, California, USA).
Miranda, "Comparison of a recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test
for serological confirmation of syphilis," Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.
pallidum hemagglutination test
(TPHA) were found to be 1/320 positive on the first day of life at the center where the baby was born.