It is unclear how "visual dependence" develops, but we define it as "reduced ability to disregard visual cues in complex or conflicting visual environments (e.g., height vertigo
, crowd, traffic, supermarkets, etc.)".
It has been suggested that height vertigo is associated with conditions deficient in close visual references, and the destabilizing effect of height is the same at different altitudes when the height environments are equally deficient in close visual references (Bles, Kapteyn, Brandt, & Arnold, 1980; Brandt, Arnold, Bles, & Kapteyn, 1980; Lee & Lishman, 1975).
Exclusion criteria for study participation were acrophobia, height vertigo, history of dizziness, neurological disorder, abnormal vision, and uncorrected vision.