Since Haff disease is characterized by vomiting and myalgia without fever following mean incubation periods of 8 hours, a heat-stable toxin
has always been suspected as the cause.
Subsequent rewarming of the perlo for approximately 1 hour the following day did not destroy the heat-stable toxin
and might have further increased toxin load.
By analysing adjusted population attributable fractions, they found that most attributable cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea were due to four pathogens: rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin
(ST-ETEC; with or without co-expression of heat-labile enterotoxin), and Shigella.
An unknown heat-stable toxin
that accumulated in the implicated food is a possible cause.
The diarrhea is mediated by 1 or 2 plasmid-encoded enterotoxins; the heat-stable toxin
(ST) and/or the heat-labile toxin (LT) (1).
If cooked rice is subsequently held at room temperature, vegetative forms multiply, and heat-stable toxin
is produced that can survive brief heating, such as stir frying (4).
b) NM, nonmotile; LT, heat-labile toxin; ST, heat-stable toxin
(ST) was determined in parallel in the same cultures by an inhibition-G[M.
b) EAST, heat-stable toxin
1 of EAEC; E-hly, EHEC hemolysin; AA, aggregative adherence; Afa, afimbrial adhesin.
These toxins, which affect eukaryotic cells by a variety of means, include Staphylococcus aureus [Alpha]-toxin, Shiga toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Escherichia coil heat-stable toxin
, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, and S.
Emetic (causing vomiting) intoxication is caused by heat-stable toxins
in food; another type of poisoning is diarrhoeal, which is caused by ingestion of a large amount of Bacillus cereus that can produce toxins in the intestine.