the speed or frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time, population, or other standard of comparison.
a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate
and specific rate
attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill.
basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. Abbreviated BMR.
birth rate the number of live births in a geographic area in a defined period, usually one year, relative to some specified population. For the crude birth rate, it is the average total population or the midyear population in the area during the period. Specific birth rates for subsets of the population may also be calculated, for example, an age-specific birth rate is limited to the population of females of a defined age range.
case fatality rate the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared to the total number of cases of the disease.
one giving the total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, without reference to any of the individuals or subgroups within the population. See also adjusted rate
and specific rate
the number of deaths in a certain period of time divided by the total of a given population. The crude death rate
is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. The age-specific death rate
is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. The cause-specific death rate
is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. Called also mortality rate
Historic example of death rates (per 100,000) for leading causes of death for men aged 25–44 years. From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42:483, 1993.
DEF rate an expression of dental caries experienced in primary teeth, calculated by adding number of those requiring filling (D), decayed teeth requiring extraction (E), and those that have already been successfully filled (F); missing primary teeth are not included in the calculation.
DMF rate an expression of the condition of the permanent teeth based on the number of teeth decayed, missing (or indicated for removal), and filled or bearing restorations. It is calculated by adding the number of carious permanent teeth requiring filling (D), carious ones requiring extraction (Mr), ones previously extracted because of caries (Mp), and permanent teeth (F).
dose rate the amount of any therapeutic agent administered per unit of time.
the death rate
in a specific group of persons simultaneously affected by some event or circumstances, such as a natural disaster.
a measure of fertility in a defined population over a specified period of time, usually one year; particularly the general fertility rate
, but also including more specific rates such as those for females of a given parity or a particular age range or that describing the completed rate for females who have finished childbearing.
fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year.
five-year survival rate an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of a given disease five years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the disease.
general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the number of live births in a geographic area in a year per 1000 women of childbearing age, which is usually defined as age 15 to 44 years.
glomerular filtration rate an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g., inulin or creatinine.
growth rate an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
heart rate the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time (usually per minute).
the risk of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator of the rate is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period. Compare prevalence r.
infant mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than one year of age to the number of live births in that year.
maternal mortality rate
a rate in which the numerator is the number of maternal deaths ascribed to puerperal causes in one year; the number of live births in that year is often used as the denominator, although to make a true rate the denominator should be the number of pregnancies (live births plus fetal deaths). Called also puerperal mortality rate
mendelian rate an expression of the numerical relations of the occurrence of distinctly contrasted mendelian characteristics in succeeding generations of hybrid offspring.
metabolic rate an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
neonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than 28 days of age to the number of live births in that year.
perinatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of the sum of fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) and deaths of infants less than 7 days of age in one time period and population to the sum of the number of live births and fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) in that same time period and population.
postneonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in a given year of children between the 28th day of life and the first birthday relative to the difference between the number of the live births and neonatal deaths in that year; the denominator is sometimes simplified, less correctly, to the number of live births. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the infant mortality rate and the neonatal mortality rate.
the number of people in a population who have a disease at a given time; the numerator is the number of existing cases of disease at a specified time and the denominator is the total population. Time may be a point or a defined interval, and is traditionally the former if unspecified. Compare incidence r.
the rate of the pulse
, measured as number of pulsations in an artery per unit of time; normally between 60 and 80 per minute in an adult.
respiration rate the number of inhalations and exhalations per unit of time, usually measured by observation of chest movements and averaging 16 to 20 per minute in an adult.
the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge; see also erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
in cardiac pacing
, the rate, expressed in units of mV/msec, at which an R wave reaches peak amplitude; it represents the maximum rate of change of amplifier output voltage.
a rate that applies to a specific demographic subgroup, e.g., individuals of a specific age, sex, or race, giving the total number of events in relation only to that subgroup. See also adjusted rate
and crude rate
the hollow muscular organ lying on the sternum that serves as a pump controlling the blood flow in two circuits, the pulmonary and the systemic. See also circulatory
a mechanical device that replaces the heart by using pulsating air to pump blood to the body. Successfully placed in calves, sheep and dogs as experimental models for the subsequent use of such methods in humans.
ossicles in the fibrous skeletal ring which surrounds the aortic orifice of the heart in cattle and occasionally in other species; called also ossa cordis.
heart conducting system
consists of the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, the atrioventricular bundle and its two crura.
cyanotic heart malformations
insufficient oxygenated hemoglobin is received in the peripheral capillary beds resulting in blue discoloration of tissues, and an incapacity of the body to maintain a life-sustaining level of activity.
an all-embracing term including those diseases in which there is intrinsic disease of the heart such as uremia, valvular disease, African horse sickness, vitamin E-selenium nutritional deficiency, inherited cardiomyopathies of dogs and cattle, altitude sickness, canine parvovirus infection, and in a number of plant and other poisonings. See also mulberry heart disease
heart failure cells
hemosiderin-laden macrophages present in the pulmonary alveoli in cases of congestive heart failure.
includes ectopia cordis, patent foramen ovale, ventricular septal defects such as Fallot's tetralogy, Eisenmenger complex, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic coarctation, right aortic arch persistence, truncus arteriosus persistence, fibroelastosis, subvalvular aortic stenosis, anomalous origin of carotid arteries, transposition of great vessels, pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis.
heart meridian points
acupuncture points along the heart meridian.
the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time. For normal rates see pulse
a concept which sets out that performance in racing horses is related to heart size, now a well-established relationship, and that heart size can be estimated in the living horse by the measurement of the QRS interval.
is an unpopular concept in any medical science but overtrained horses which perform poorly do have a high incidence of abnormal T waves.
heart valve anomalies
failure of complete development of atrioventricular or semilunar valves results in stenosis or incompetence of the valves and often congestive heart failure.
heart valve hematoma
congenital, usually multiple lesions on the edges of atrioventricular valves, mostly in calves; disappear spontaneously in most cases.
heart valve thrombosis
common lesion on the free edges of valves, often the source of widespread emboli; on healing leave scarred, insufficient valves.
flaps of endothelial connective tissue that guard the entrance into and exit from the ventricles and bring about unidirectional blood flow. Include the atrioventricular and semilunar valves, the proper closure of which is essential to maintain circulatory equilibrium, can be diseased and cause heart failure. See also heart murmur
the frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time.
the proportion of a population affected by a specific condition during a prescribed, usually short, period of time.
the rate of occurrence of a specific attribute.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject.
the number of births during one year for the total population (crude birth rate), for the female population (refined birth rate), or for the female population of reproductive age (true birth rate).
case fatality rate
the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared with the total number of cases of the disease.
the rate of occurrence of e.g. disease in cohorts.
the number of deaths per stated number of animals (1000 or 10,000 or 100,000) in a certain region in a certain time period.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) fatality rate
the number of deaths caused by a specific circumstance or disease, expressed as the absolute or relative number among individuals encountering the circumstance or having the disease.
five-year survival rate
an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of disease 5 years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the same disease.
forced expiratory flow rate (FEF)
see maximal expiratory flow rate (below).
glomerular filtration rate
an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g. inulin or creatinine.
an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time.
describes the probability of a new case occurring during a stated time interval.
percentage of the population from which a specific infectious pathogen is isolated.
rate controlling enzymic steps in metabolic pathways. Often allosteric enzymes with allosteric effector sites but can be controlled through substrate availability, product removal or enzyme concentration.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR)
the slope of the line connecting the points 200 ml and 1200 ml on the forced expiratory volume curve. See also pulmonary
function tests. Called also FEF200-1200
an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
the number of cases of a given disease occurring in a specified period per unit of population.
death rate; the mortality rate of a disease is the ratio of the number of deaths from a given disease to the total number of cases of that disease.
percentage of reactors in a tested population.
the number of movements of the chest wall per unit of time, indicative of inspiration and expiration.
the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge. See also sedimentation
expresses the frequency of a characteristic per unit of the population.
adaptation of a rate so that the conditions under which it occurred are comparable with those in which other rates have been estimated. There are several methods, e.g. the equivalent average death rate.