head kidney

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, pl.


(prō-nef'ros, -roy),
1. The definitive excretory organ of primitive fishes. Synonym(s): head kidney
2. In the embryos of higher vertebrates, a vestigial structure consisting of a series of tortuous tubules emptying into the cloaca by way of the primary nephric duct; in the human embryo, the pronephros is a very rudimentary and temporary structure, followed by the mesonephros and still later by the metanephros.
[pro- + G. nephros, kidney]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
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Key words: TNF-a, Cirrhinusmrigala, head kidney, spleen, LPS, Intra-peritoneal injection.
Trout head kidney incubated with 10 ug/ml LPS showed an increased expression of TNF- a (Teles et al., 2011).
For example, the root of Panax ginseng (Sonada et al., 1998) and the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Panprommin et al., 2011) stimulate the expression of IL-8 in human monocytic cell lines and the head kidney of Nile tilapia, respectively.
Gene expression analyses in head kidney and spleen of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) infected with Streptococcus agalactiae by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) technique.
Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium in a neotropical fish Coiossoma macropomum.
Briefly, head kidney was removed aseptically and macerated through a 100 urn nylon mesh, using L-15 medium.
From head kidney was obtained a phase of leukocytes (HKL) enriched in macrophages, which were grown successfully.