hazard ratio


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hazard ratio

(haz′ărd),

HR

1. In biostatistics, the calculated likelihood that a particular intervention will make a study outcome more or less likely to occur. A hazard ratio of 1.0 indicates that the variable has no impact on the outcome. A hazard ratio of less than 1.0 indicates that the variable decreases the likelihood of the outcome. A ratio exceeding 1.0 indicates that the variable increases the likelihood of the outcome. A ratio of 2.0 suggests that the variable doubles the likelihood of the outcome. A ratio of 0.5 suggests that it halves the risk of the outcome.
2. The likelihood that a group of people who are exposed to an event, toxin, or treatment will experience poor health, relative to a group of people who are not similarly exposed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, the posterior distribution for program-specific hazard ratios is a Gamma distribution that depends only on the number of observed and expected events (Salkowski et al.
The metric combines the changes in analyte values imparted by analytical error with a relationship that maps a measure of disease severity, such as the hazard ratio, relative risk, odds ratio, or other prognostic outcome, to the analyte values.
Participants whose sleep decreased from 6-8 hours a night at the first interview to less than 6 hours at the second interview had a fully adjusted hazard ratio of mortality from cardiovascular cause of 2.04, compared with 1.22 for those who slept more.
The association was strongest for types of liquids fed on the maternity ward: Compared with infants fed exclusively breast milk at that time, infants also fed formula had a more than doubling of the risk of not being exclusively breast-fed, fully breast-fed and breast-fed at all (adjusted hazard ratios, 2.1-2.3).
For those with TSH of 7-9.9 mIU/L, the rate was 37.4/1,000 person-years and the adjusted hazard ratio 2.88.
They also found this increased risk in those born to mothers with a low educational level, defined as fewer than 9 years of education (hazard ratio 1.36), and in those born to a teenage mother (hazard ratio 2.09).
Major Finding: In 23,327 patients with RA, the presence of subcutaneous nodules was found to confer a 44% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.44).
Among the seven cohorts with subclinical hyperthyroidism, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality ranged from 0.84 to 2.22.
In the Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio for death (co-trimoxazole:placebo) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.63 - 0.99).
Among premenopausal women, the hazard ratio for developing breast cancer was 0.61 for women in the highest versus lowest quintiles of calcium use and 0.65 for vitamin D intake.
After adjustment for age, race and ethnicity, education, and risk factors, the estimated effect of metabolic syndrome on vascular events--including ischemic stroke, heart attack, and vascular death--was significantly greater in women (hazard ratio 1.8) than in men (1.4).
A significantly increased risk for attempted suicide was found in those with gestational age--adjusted short birth length, defined as length between 39 and 47 cm (hazard ratio 1.29), as well as in those born fourth or later in birth order (hazard ratio 1.79).

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