One recent study found that anti-infective agents, particularly antibiotics, increased the risk of schizophrenia (

hazard rate ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.38) and affective disorders (HRR, 2.59; 95% CI, 2.31-2.89), which the researchers attributed to brain inflammation, the microbiome, and environmental factors (Acta Psychiatr Scand.

where h(t, [X.sub.it]) is the

hazard rate function, and [h.sub.0](t) is the baseline hazard function, and [X.sub.it] is a vector of covariates.

The

hazard rate can be interpreted as the percentage of drivers who exited F1 at the end of a given season, given their level of tenure at time t.

Drawing on representative household-level data from Germany, Meng (2011) shows that when an employed women aged 58 or above is engaged in informal care giving, her

hazard rate of retirement is raised by a striking 74% in the subsequent year.

where the hazard function has constant, increasing, decreasing, bathtub, and upside-down bathtub

hazard rate.

The third approach provided the risk or

hazard rate of a nest surviving based on categorical covariates.

In survival analysis of time to death, or to any event, the

hazard rate is a measure of the risk in the population at large.

Given that we examine the probability that a subsidiary divestment will occur under the condition that all other subsidiaries are also at risk during the same time period, we employ a Cox proportional

hazard rate model as a commonly used statistical method in the event history analysis.

The

hazard rate of Double Weibull Distribution (DWD)

With this explanation in mind, we will now focus on articulating theory concerning the expected

hazard rate (likelihood) that motor carriers receiving warning flags at the start of the CSA program will come to exit this flagged status.

Of arguably more utility than the survivor function in EHA is the hazard function, or

hazard rate. The

hazard rate is defined as the rate in which the duration or event ends (i.e., the event has been experienced), given that the target event or the duration has not ended prior to that particular time interval (Box-Steffensmeier & Jones, 1997).

They develop the

hazard rate function which includes the following steps: