If the installed flooring does not cover the entire floor, the noncancer and cancer hazard quotients will be correspondingly lower (e.g., if only 50% of the total floor area is covered, the modeled concentrations will be one half of those presented).
TABLE 1 Hazard quotients associated with the formaldehyde emissions from Lumber Liquidators' laminate flooring made in China.
For both the direct and indirect exposures, we calculated the hazard quotients as the ratio of the calculated exposures to both cancer and non-cancer health exposure guidelines.
For both the direct and indirect exposures, we calculated the hazard quotients as the ratio of the calculated exposures to the cancer (NSRL) and non-cancer (CREL) health exposure guidelines.
Table 2 summarizes the hazard quotients associated with the direct exposures of e-cigarette users and the indirect (passive) exposures of non-users.
With respect to the NSRL hazard quotients for cancer related health effects, four of the nine chemicals analyzed exceeded 1.0 for the direct exposure to users; lead (1.33), formaldehyde (1.64), NNK (2.36), and cadmium (5.13).
If we use the minimum rather than the maximum chemical emissions in Table 1, the modeled direct and indirect CREL hazard quotients still exceed 1.0 for propylene glycol (293 direct and 7.0 indirect) and nicotine (65 direct and 1.6 indirect).