Adams, 1853; Cominella maculosa (Martyn, 1784); and Haustrum scobina (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (Fig.
To investigate differences in lipid class composition among hatchlings of Cominella virgata, Cominella maculosa, and Haustrum scobina, permutational analyses of variance (PERMANOVA; Anderson, 2001; Anderson et al., 2008) were conducted based on the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index of untransformed amounts of lipid classes ([micro]g [mg.sup.-1]) and unrestricted permutation of raw data with 999 permutations.
A maximum of eight lipid classes were identified in hatchlings: six in Cominella virgata, seven in Haustrum scobina, and eight in Cominella maculosa.
Differences between the Cominella species and Haustrum were also similarly explained, with 90% of the differences due to quantities of PL, which were greater than both TAG and ST (Table 1).
Per-offspring investment in sibling Cominella maculosa and Haustrum scobina
In general., differences were detected among the study species, including the absence of WE and ME in Cominella virgata and the absence of FFA in Haustrum scobina.
This finding suggests an important trade-off between hatching size and energy content and a possible key role of nurse-embryo-feeding in Haustrum scobina.
Our observations suggest that female Cominella maculosa controls allocation of resources among embryos within a capsule more effectively (via non-adelphophagic, intracapsular feeding) than does female Haustrum scobina, with its nurse-embryo-based strategy.
Interspecific variability in hatchling size may not always be a reliable indicator of variability in energetic reserves; smaller hatchlings of Haustrum scobina had more energetic resources than did the larger Cominella virgata.