but not parthenogenetic activation leads to increased incidence of apoptosis in mouse embryos.
As in the other two androgenic ways to haploidy, the genotype plays an important role.
Given the economic impact of these species and/or their suitability for both fundamental and applied research, parallel efforts have been made to circumvent their extreme recalcitrancy by exploring alternative pathways to androgenic haploidy, whereas in species more easily inducible to microspore embryogenesis, focusing on alternatives is unnecessary in practice, and resources can be devoted to investigate more promising ways to doubled haploidy.
2002), our findings corroborate Blank's (1987) speculation that haploidy exists in S.
Phylogenetic support for haploidy in Symbiodinium and other dinofiagellates
This is perhaps not surprising given that the haploidy
of the males virtually eliminates the possibility for mechanisms of overdominance to maintain genetic polymorphism (Pamilo [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 6 OMITTED] et al.
is therefore the only evolutionarily stable life cycle.
Additional cultivars and experimentals have been scaled-down to the diploid level via haploidy
almost every year since 1979.
induction followed by chromosome doubling either during culture or by colchicine treatment of haploid seedlings leads to the production of doubled haploid lines.
The use of haploidy
to develop plants that express several recessive traits using light-seeded canola (Brassica napus) as an example.
After root establishment, plantlets were transferred to 10-cm pots and grown to maturity to verify their haploidy
through lack of seed production.
Similarly, the occurrence of parthenogenesis in tetraploid alfalfa (Bingham, 1971) is another feature which has been widely exploited to reduce cultivated tetraploid alfalfa to the diploid level via haploidy
(Bingham and McCoy, 1979).