0 Opportunistic or haphazard sampling
, including voluntary observer programs, to support bycatch or total catch estimation.
2), rather than reflecting the haphazard sampling
expected from a limited surface survey without benefit of even exploratory excavations (Garanger 1971:58, 1972:32).
Anecdotal evidence and results of a recent survey of practicing auditors indicate that the majority of audit samples are nonstatistical, with haphazard sampling being the method of choice in most circumstances [see "Sampling Practices of Auditors in Public Accounting.
Two recent research studies confirmed that haphazard sampling is susceptible to selection bias and therefore may not yield representative samples.
20), tested whether doubling the size of an audit sample would reliably eliminate the bias inherent in haphazard sampling.
Because this study is an observational study with haphazard sampling, the precision and bias cannot be directly assessed.
The survey data were collected during the six-year survey under three different survey designs, none of which were strictly randomized, but each involved some degree of haphazard sampling due to weather, sediment structure, and other logistical restrictions for beam trawling in small bays off the Gulf of Alaska (Norcross et al.
The most common method of sample selection is haphazard sampling at 74 percent of all applications, followed by dollar-unit sampling at 12 percent of all applications.
The effectiveness of increasing sample size to mitigate the influence of population characteristics in haphazard sampling.
A recent survey of auditors found that the majority of audit samples are selected using haphazard sampling, i.
Pending completion of more research, these standard-setting bodies should reconsider the conditions under which haphazard sampling is sanctioned as a reliable audit tool.
Haphazard sampling is a process of sample selection in which the auditor chooses a sample that is expected to be representative of the population without the use of probabilistic randomizing aids (AICPA 1997; IFAC 1998; AICPA 1999).