The majority of programs (89.2%) introduced hand scaling
instrumentation instruction prior to the introduction of ultrasonic scaling instrumentation instruction (Figure 1).
(4, 6, 8) While ergonomically appropriate postures can minimize force moments on the body, the nature of performing repetitive movements, such as hand scaling
and polishing, places high workloads on the muscles and tendons of the forearms and hands.
Key to this was the overcutting and rock bolting in the development drifts, eliminating the need for "giraffes" and hand scaling
In addition, hand scaling
was rated as worse than sonic and ultrasonic instrumentation.
Complete debridement of the hard tissues using ultrasonics and hand scaling