The acronym PICO stands for Population (in the actual review: soccer-football-rugby players), Intervention (static stretching of the hamstring muscle
), Comparator (athlete with intervention programme and without intervention programme and Outcomes (range of motion as injury prevention, static stretching as injury prevention).
During phase 1, an active contraction of the stretched hamstring muscles
is performed voluntarily (either isometric or concentric).
These improvements were accompanied by an enhanced reflex activity of the hamstring muscles
. No significant differences were found for any variable for the subjects who had trained with the semi-rigid ankle brace.
If the client complains of muscle tightness in the back of the thigh, the problem is most likely lack of flexibility in the hamstring muscles
. If the patient complains of back or hip pain or nerve pain (characterized by numbness, tingling, a sharp pain or something that feels like electricity), he or she should be referred to a physician.
Static stretching for the hamstring muscle
in standing and sitting position.
(1996) Biomechanical responses to repeated stretches in human hamstring muscle
The cut-off values of the AKE and the PKE test for the detection of short hamstring muscle
flexibility were calculated based on the normal distribution approach (95% of the population was accepted as normal).
Table 1: Mean and "P" value of all outcomes Parameters Mean n Significance (2 tailed) Pair 1 Pre-VAS 5.77 30 0.000 (*) Post-VAS 2.83 30 Pair 2 Pre Sit Reach test 25.63 30 0.000 (*) Post Sit Reach test 30.33 30 Pair 3 Pre right hip extension 21.00 30 0.000 (*) Post right hip extension 28.00 30 Pair 4 Pre left hip extension 20.00 30 0.000 (*) Post left hip extension 27.33 30 (*) P<0.05 there is significant differences exist for pain intensity, length of hamstring muscle
, length of iliopsoas muscle between pre- and post-test values (P<0.05).
This single exercise protocol, which involves a controlled lowering of the trunk to the floor from a kneeling position, increases the eccentric strength of the hamstring muscle
and thereby improving its ability to tolerate high loads while placed under stress.
They concluded that the knee extension deficit observed in most patients was due to hamstring muscle
spasms secondary to arthrogenic muscle inhibition.
When the specific area of tightness of hamstring muscle
is located, the further treatment is limited to this target area.
Effects of three protocols of hamstring muscle
stretching and paravertebral lumbar.