halogenation


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hal·o·gen·a·tion

(hal'ō-jĕ-nā'shŭn),
Incorporation of one or more halogen atoms into a molecule.
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With the result that (i) the Compound II/native enzyme standard reduction potential is too low to react with halogens and (ii) the nature of substrates strongly influenced their ability to be oxidized by mammalian peroxidase compound II [2,14,20], therefore, when the enzyme is in this state, it has to be first reduced to the ground state before possibly participating to the halogenation cycle and producing antimicrobial molecules [14].
The interesting feature of this transformation is specific regioselectivity, which is quite different from the conventional electrophilic halogenation to afford 1-bromopyrene 5 (Scheme 5).
A Halogenation (carbo-chlorination) process plant; and
The green copper phthalocyanines are made by halogenation of the parent blue pigment.
The mechanism of halogenation by molecular halogens involves the fast bimolecular halogen transfer to the nitrogen with release of halide ion (23).
These include 1) boiling for 1 minute if below 2000 m (6562 feet) and 3 minutes if above, 2) chlorine dioxide tablets, 3) MIOX purifier, 4) ultraviolet light (SteriPEN), and 5) portable filtration with a absolute pore size <1 micrometer combined with halogenation or charcoal filtration (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, based on expert opinion and microbiological testing).
It is difficult to synthesise as the halogenation stage in the manufacture uses elemental fluorine which is potentially explosive; also the increase in fluoride ions decreases the potency considerably, making the MAC of desflurane 6% compared to 1.15% for isoflurane.
Topics discussed include catalysts for Friedel-Crafts type reactions, transition metal catalysts for oxofunctionalization via new methods for radicalic halogenation, and domino processes by catalytic ortho-metalation.
Moreover, these compounds likewise serve as intermediates for a variety of organic syntheses including such reactions as halogenation, hydration and alkylation.
Chemical properties related to unsaturated centres: Hydrogenation; Oxidation through reaction with oxygen; Biological oxidation; Other oxidation reactions; Halogenation; Stereomutation; Metathesis; Double bond migration and cyclisation; Dimerisation (dimer acids, isostearic acid, estolides, Guerbet alcohols and acids); Neighbouring group participation; Friedel-Crafts acylation and related reactions.
"Halogenation in the rhodophyta: A review." J Phycol, 1975; 11:245-259.
INCREASED TOXICITY OF HALOGINATED HYDRO-CARBONS WITH THE DEGREE OF HALOGENATION: A CYTOGENETIC STUDY IN MICE BONE MARROW CELLS