In current study half-and-half nails were present in 34.4% of patients which is consistent with the finding in the study of Mirza et al.9 demonstrated half-and-half nail in 36.7% patients.
Distribution of dermatological lesions were as follows: pallor was present in 119 (74.4%) patients, hyperpigmentation in 115 (71.9%) patients, xerosis in 96 (60%), pruritus in 91 (56.9%), ecchymosis and petechiae in 28 (17.5%), fissured tongue in 18 (11.3%), angular cheilitis in 3 (1.9%), ulcerative stomatitis in 22 (13.8%), half-and-half nails in 55 (34.4%) and koilonychia was present in 5 (3.1%) patients.
Xerosis, pruritus, half-and-half nails, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, pallor and perforating disorders are common manifestations of ESRD.6
It was noted that only hyperpigmentation and half-and-half nails were more frequent in patients with CKD of [greater than or equal to]3 year duration (P<0.05).
Among nail changes half-and-half nails were present in 267 (76.3%) and among mucosal changes xerostomia was present in 290 (82.9%) patients.
The commonest are xerosis pruritus half-and-half nails and xerostomia.
KeywordsChronic renal failure cutaneous manifestations xerosis pruritus half-and-half nails xerostomia.
Among type of manifestations xerosis was noted in 96% generalized xerosis 70% alopecia 70% half-and-half nails 36% scaling 20% and ichthyosis 10%.
Among types of skin manifestation; xerosis accounts for 91% followed by pruritus in 65% hyperpigmentation 54% oral lesions 69% and half-and-half nails in 57%.5 The lack of recognition of these cutaneous features may result in delay of diagnosis and treatment therefore in progression to a severe or life-threatening disease.1 So we conducted study to determine the frequency of skin manifestations in patients with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis.