The utilization of horsegram as human food is restricted due to presence of high level of enzyme inhibitors, haemagglutinin
activities, oligosaccharides, tannins, polyphenols and phytic acid compared to the other legumes which can be reduced below their mischief potential through processing (Dhumal and Bolbhat, 2012; Sharma, 2011).
Oil seeds Cyanide Tannin Oxalate Trypsin content content content Inhibitor mg HCN/100gm g/100g g/100g Activity (TIA) Percent inhibition Helianthus 4.175 0.651 0.113 ND annuus LSF-11 Helianthus 4.026 0.623 0.098 ND annuus LSF-8 Carthamus 3.458 0.511 0.079 ND tinctorius PBNS-12 Carthamus 3.730 0.530 0.085 ND tinctorius PBNS-40 Arachis 4.818 0.412 0.180 ND hypogaea JL-24 Oil seeds Haemagglutinin Haemagglutinin Haemagglutinin
Activity Activity Activity (on Chicken (on Goat (on Human +O Blood Group) Blood Group) Blood Group) Helianthus 1:16 1:32 1:8 annuus LSF-11 Helianthus 1:8 1:16 1:2 annuus LSF-8 Carthamus ND ND ND tinctorius PBNS-12 Carthamus ND ND ND tinctorius PBNS-40 Arachis ND 1:8 ND hypogaea JL-24 ND- not detected.
Therefore, it was postulated that 19 S and 16 S toxins have both haemagglutinin
(HA) and non-toxin non-haemagglutin (NTNH) proteins whereas 12 S toxin is formed by association of NTNH protein only.
[7.] Ramamani S, Chandrasekhara HN and MK Narasimba Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin and haemagglutinins
by roasting of soybean (Glycine max).
: primitive receptor molecule operative in invertebrate defense mechanisms.
) in the haemolymph of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes: isolation, partial characterization, selected physico-chemical properties and carbohydrate-binding specificities.
However, even though soybean meal is an excellent protein source, it has shown poor growth performance and low digestibility in weanling pigs due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors, haemagglutinins
, raffinose and stachyose (Anderson et al., 1979).
Raw beans contain toxic haemagglutinins
which are destroyed by cooking at high heat.
Recent investigations have found the H5 haemagglutinins
(HA) genes genetically different from the prototype strains selected last year for the pandemic vaccine development (WHO, EPR, 2005c).
Antigenic and sequence analysis of H3 influenza virus haemagglutinins
from pigs in Italy.
The allantoic fluid was tested for the presence of haemagglutinins
through haemagglutination test (HA) using 1% chicken erythrocytes.
Also, raw beans contain a trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinins
, which are antinutritional factors.