Recruitment requirements for professors are normally doctorate, habilitation and teaching ability.
Apart from that, there is a lack of formalized promotion structures in favor of highly individualized doctorate and habilitation phases.
As found in the case of German professors in the late 1980s, 60,9% of the women did not have any children (and this is valid only for 18,6% of the men) or had them later in life (after doctorate or even habilitation).
providing habilitation stipends) or attempts to change these rules (voting for habilitation abolishment).
The Amendments to the Higher Education Framework Act in 1998 recognise the office of Commissioners on Women's Issues or Equal Opportunities Officers (existing at the universities since the beginning of 1990s), secure the performance-oriented funding of the universities (enforcement of gender equality is recognized as an achievement together with performance in teaching, research, and promotion of young scientists) and waive the habilitation as a precondition for an appointment as a professor.
doctoral studies and habilitation) suiting women's needs were developed, in particular stipends helping re-entry after career breaks and contact fellowship for women on parental leave for instance.
Percentage of women at different levels in higher education in 1998 professors C4 5.90% professors C3 9.80% professors C2 13.90% habilitation awardees 15.30% junior staff 28.30% doctor's degree awardees 33.10% graduates 43.20% students 44.50% new entrants 48.50% university entrance 52.80% qualification holders Source: BLK 2000 "Frauen in der Wissenschaft--Entwicklung und Perspektiven auf dem Weg zur chancengleichheit" Materialen zur Bildungsplanung und zur Forschungsfoerderung.www.blk-bonn.de (15.03.2001).