In molluscs, studies on gynogenesis
were preliminary, and the progress was slow.
Among vertebrates gynogenesis
occurs only in some allfemale species of fish, salamanders, and lizards .
In the gynogenesis
study, motility of spermatozoa over 90% has been used in fertilization.
Nonetheless, in both intra- and interspecies variants of the gynogenesis
, DH brown trout larvae hatched and survived till the swim-up stage (Table 1).
in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several factors affecting in vitro gynogenesis
including genotypes of donor plants, induction and differentiation media, and thermal shock pretreatment on ELS and callus formation in the unpollinated ovary culture of five cucumber cultivars in Thailand that are productive and/or moderately resistant or resistant to downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis).
1990.--Ploidy manipulation and gynogenesis
in fishes: Cytogenetic and fisheries applications.
Some of these factors, which may also be present in other types of haploid-inducing techniques (gynogenesis
through interspecific or intergeneric hybridization) are not present in most of the reported cases of in vivo androgenesis.
Production of inbred lines using traditional systems takes a long time, while gynogenesis
offers the possibility of haploid and dihaploid lines production in a shorter time.
The triploid forms that reproduce by gynogenesis
have 141 to 160 (3n) chromosomes (Penaz et al., 1979).
The 27 papers in the 2005 edition of the annual volume review recent studies on the evolution of fluctuating asymmetry, polyandry, aphid- ant interactions, and agriculture in insects; and the evolutionary ecology of gynogenesis
and plant adaptation to serpentine.
tigrinum) can form female triploid hybrids that reproduce via gynogenesis
(Bogart & Licht 1986).