A rare continual flowering strategy and its influence on offspring quality in a gynodioecious
Pollen limitation and distance-dependent fecundity in females of the clonal gynodioecious
herb Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae).
Spatio-temporal variation in abundance and variation in foraging behavior of the pollinators of gynodioecious
Phacelia linearis (Hydrophyllaceae).
It is a wind-pollinated, gynodioecious
, and predominantly outcrossing species (mean outcrossing rate 0.77; Wolff et al.
Flowering periods in the gynodioecious
species Gingidia decipiens (Umbelliferae).
Herbs, shrubs, subshrubs, vines, or trees; monoecious, dioecious, or gynodioecious
. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, spreading along the stem or clustered in a basal rosette, in the median part of the stem, or at the stem apex; sessile, clasping, decurrent to petiolate, occasionally with stipules; blades simple, rarely compound, entire to divided, unarmed to spiny, predominantly pinnately veined, less commonly three-veined, palmately veined, or parallel-veined, glabrous to pubescent.
Pollinator visitation, floral display, and nectar production of the sexual morphs of a gynodioecious
In contrast to the conditions outlined in the well-known dioecious model, some plant species consist of both hermaphroditic and male sterile, or functionally female, individuals, and are said to be gynodioecious
(Frank 1989; Couvet et al.
This species is gynodioecious
, with individual plants either female or hermaphroditic.
Herbs caulescent, stout to cushion-like, annual or perennial, rarely shrubs, monoecious, gynodioecious
, or dioecious.
Life history of the long-lived gynodioecious
cushion plant, Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae), inferred from size-based population projection matrices.
species, however, it is possible to have at least a crude estimation of male fitness, since part of the population is male sterile and, therefore, does not contribute with male gametes to the next generation.