Somatic embryogenesis from leaf callus of mature plants of the gymnosperm
Ceratozamia mexicana var.
, the YABBY genes are distributed among the A, B, C, and D clades .
Alkaloids are nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites that are found in approximately 20% of vascular plant species and are frequently found in herbaceous dicot than in monocots and gymnosperms
. Most alkaloids including pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxic to some degree and can act as a defense mechanism in herbivore attack and microbial infection.
In the Salt and Surghar Range the Smithian-Spathian climatic deterioration seriously affected the life in the marine realm, especially the Ammonites and conodonts, and also on land gymnosperm
dominated floras replaced the lycopod-dominated communities of the Dienerian-Smithian interval (Hermann et al., 2012).
Furthermore, age estimates for gymnosperms
and ferns, among other clades, have been compiled by Hedges and Kumar (2009).
EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm
specific genes.BMC Genomics6(1): 143.
Lianas of the genus Gnetum are broadleaved gymnosperms
with more than 30 species of pantropical distribution (Rodin & Kapil, 1969).
To develop the objectives of the present study, we evaluated 11 sites classified into four types of vegetation cover: (1) forests, (2) pastures, (3) restored areas originating from open pastures of African introduced grasses (RA-pasture), and (4) restored areas originating from harvested gymnosperm
forest plantations (RA forestry).
Some computational, functional, and comparative genomic approaches were reported by  in order to improve the uncovering of interesting genes and the annotation of several contigs from pine and other gymnosperm
As possible predictors of LEQN were also considered the density and cover of both the gymnosperm
species Casuarina equisetifolia, Cupressus sp.pl, and Pinus sp.pl., and the non-gymnosperm ones (a total of 30 species more; see Barillas Gomez, 2004; Bonache Regidor, 2005; Gonzalez-Oreja et al., in press).
gattii with trees is isolation of the fungus from decayed hollows of angiosperm and gymnosperm
pollens clearly dominate the assemblage (80%) with Chasmatosporite the most abundant of all.