guanylyl cyclase


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guan·y·late cy·clase

(gwahn'i-lāt sī'klās),
An enzyme analogous to adenylate (adenylyl) cyclase, but cyclizing guanosine 5'-triphosphate to guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate and also producing pyrophosphate; activated by nitric oxide.

guanylyl cyclase

An enzyme that catalyses the transformation of GTP to GMP.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lin et al., "Guanylyl cyclase is an ATP sensor coupling nitric oxide signaling to cell metabolism," Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Potent and selective inhibition of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1, 2, 4]oxadiazolo[4, 3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one.
Involvement of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase in the SNP-Induced Response.
Two distinct pathways seem to be involved in the proliferative effect of NO, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway [5] and the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway [9].
The only definitive and curative treatment available is bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical donor.1 The observation that hydroxyurea (HU) can cause a rise in foetal haemoglobin (HbF) in sickle cell disease led many investigators around the globe to exploit its potential in other haemoglobinopthies.2 The precise mechanism of action is not yet clear, but it appears that HU increases nitric oxide levels, causing soluble guanylyl cyclase activation with a resultant rise in cyclic GMP, and the activation of gamma-globin synthesis necessary for HbF.3 These newly-formed gamma-globin chains competitively bind with alpha-globin chains.
Mundy et al., "GTP avoidance in Tetrahymena thermophila requires tyrosine kinase activity, intracellular calcium, NOS, and guanylyl cyclase," Purinergic Signalling, vol.4, no.2, pp.171-181,2008.
In this scenario, the enhanced binding of NO to guanylyl cyclase would provide the signal for elevated cGMP, activation of PKG, and stimulated cilia beating.
cGMP is synthesized by cytosolic guanylyl cyclase (GC-S), activated by [Ca.sup.2+]/CaM-NOS mediated NO production, and is one of the points of cross talk between both second messenger cascades in M.
NO causes vasodilation by activating guanylyl cyclase on subjacent vascular smooth muscle cells11-12.
Binding of NO to the heme moiety of soluble guanylyl cyclase activates the guanylyl cyclase (GC), which increases the concentration of cyclic Guanosine 3'-5' monophosphate (cGMP).
In general, NO is thought to interact with the iron-containing enzymes, such as soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) (Ignarro et al., 1986), cyclo-oxygenase (Salvemini et al., 1993), and a number of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes (Wink et al., 1993).