Vardenafil and resveratrol synergistically enhance the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate
pathway in corpus cavernosal smooth muscle cells and its therapeutic potential for erectile dysfunction in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: preliminary findings.
Abbreviations BPH --benign prostatic hyperplasia LUTS --lower urinary tract symptoms PDE --phosphodiesterase PDE5 --phosphodiesterase type 5 IPSS --International Prostate Symptom Score PVR --post voiding residuum Qmax --maximal urine flow PSA --prostatic specific antigen UA --urinalysis ED --erectile dysfunction NO --nitro oxide cGMP --cyclic guanosine monophosphate
NOS --nitric oxide synthase nNOS --neuronal nitric oxide synthase eNOS --endothelial nitric oxide synthase iNOS --immune cell nitric oxide synthase Ca++ --calcium DRE --digital rectal examination FDA --Food and Drug Administration DHT --dyhidrotestosterone DOI: 10.2298/MPNS1612379G
Recent studies have revealed that sensitization of ENaC in osteoblasts is mainly caused by cyclic guanosine monophosphate
An L-arginine nitric oxide cyclic guanosine monophosphate
system exists in the uterus and inhibits contractility during pregnancy.
Abbreviations: AC, adenylate cyclase; AKT, protein kinase B; [Ca.sup.2+], calcium; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate
; DAG, diacylglycerol; ER, estrogen receptor; [K.sup.+], potassium; maxi-[K.sup.+] channels, [Ca.sup.2+]-activated [K.sup.+] channels; [Na.sup.+], sodium; NO, nitric oxide; NOS3, nitric oxide synthase 3; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKC, protein kinase C; PKG, protein kinase G; PLC, phospholipase C.
These medications ameliorate ED by inhibiting degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate
by PDE5, which increases blood flow to the penis during sexual stimulation.
The plug and rod membrane accumulates abundant amounts of cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP), synthesized by the enzyme guanyl cyclase.
The mechanism seems to involve l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) signaling pathway (Kulkarni 2007).
The drug inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesteras-5 (PDE-5), which is responsible for removing the enzyme cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) (Adams & Koch, 2009).
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) does not stimulate pigment aggregation in Palaemonetes pugio ovarian chromatophores (Lambert and Fingerman, 1979), and the lipid-soluble analog, db-cGMP, does not cause pigment aggregation in M.
Viagra blocks an enzyme that normally breaks down cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP), the substance that is produced in response to nitric oxide stimulation and is actually responsible for blood vessel dilation.