Comparative pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin
, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, and moxifloxacin after single oral administration in healthy volunteers.
Doern, "Comparative bactericidal activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin
, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a dynamic in vitro model," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.
Other fluoroquinolones such as gemifloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin
, trovafloxacin, and garenoxacin have been shown to be effective against M.
Comparative antimycobacterial activities of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and grepafloxacin
. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999; 44: 647-52.
(14,15) A study by Yamaguchi et al16 demonstrated that both grepafloxacin
and levofloxacin undergo intestinal secretion via P-glycoprotein, and it was evidenced by decreases in their bioavailability when co-administered with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporine.
aureus F265 has also been reported to have increased resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin
, levofloxacin and ofloxacin, compared to S.
Sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin
were the most potent inhibitors of the HERG channel, with 50% inhibitory concentration ([IC.sub.50]) values of 18 [micro]M and 50 [micro]M, respectively.
Serious adverse drug effects in patients led to the withdrawal or restriction of four quinolones in the past decade (temafloxacin, grepafloxacin
, trovafloxacin, and sparfloxacin).
Some of the fluoroquinolones in the studies are no longer routinely used for safety reasons, such as trovafloxacin (Trovan), which is not used in community-acquired pneumonia, and grepafloxacin
, which is off the market.
Newer fluoroquinolones with higher in vitro activity against the pneumococcus, including levofloxacin, grepafloxacin
, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, are available in the United States.
Concerns about potential QT interval prolongation have prompted Glaxo Wellcome to voluntarily withdraw its quinolone, grepafloxacin
, from the market.
$79.80 (10 days) (Cipro) sparfloxacin 400 mg day 1 $73.48 (10 days) (Zagam) followed by 200 mg/day for 9 days grepafloxacin
Not applicable Not applicable (Raxar) PENICILLIN amoxicillin 500 mg t.i.d.