grayanotoxin


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Related to grayanotoxin: Andromedotoxin

grayanotoxin

(grā-yan'ō-toks-in),
A toxin produced by rhododendrons.
Synonym(s): rhodotoxin

grayanotoxin

(grā′ăn′ə-tŏk′sĭn)
n.
A neurotoxin found in the nectar of certain rhododendrons and related plants, such as some laurels of the genus Kalmia, and in unpasteurized honey produced from such nectar, and causing temporary effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and irregular heartbeat if ingested.

grayanotoxin

(grā″ăn′ŭ-tŏk′sĭn) [Fr. NL grayana, species name + ″. ]
A diterpene cyclic hydrocarbon found in honey produced by bees that feed on rhododendrons. Consumption of tainted honey or rhododendrons results in nausea, vomiting, and numbness and tingling around the mouth and in the arms and legs. Weakness, loss of coordination, and heart rhythm disturbances rarely occur, and only after massive ingestion. The poisoning typically resolves on its own within 24 hr.
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Solutions in different concentrations, prepared with rhododendron honey (RH) from Duzce (West Black Sea, Turkey), were dissolved in water and given by gavage to the mice in 0.01 ml per gram ratio (Silici 2014).18 Test subjects of group 5 were given grayanotoxin-III (GTx) (Grayanotoxin, Lot 3-H1 293B-Enzo), approximately one--tenth the rate of the concentration LD50, which is 0.908 mg/kg, so a 0.01 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally (Kaplan et al., 2014; Oztasan et al., 2005).
Grayanotoxin content of honey samples from Black Sea Region of Turkey.
Grayanotoxin (mad honey) ongoing consumption after poisoning.
IntroductionThe mad honey intoxication appears to be a clinical manifestation of use of grayanotoxin (GTX) isolated from the honey made by bees from the Rhododendron plant flowers mainly Ericaceae and Sapindaceae families.1
Many of the Ericaceae family members produce diterpenoid grayanotoxins. These compounds bind to the sodium channels in cell membranes and increase permeability to sodium ions in excitable membranes.
The clinical signs suggest that the grayanotoxins observed in plants of the genus Rhododendron act on the central and peripheral nervous systems (ONAT et al., 1991).
Grayanotoxin is a neurotoxin that binds to the sodium channels in the cell membrane, maintaining them in an open state and prolonging depolarisation.
Is the site of action of grayanotoxin the sodium channel gating of squid axon?
Distinct site regulating grayanotoxin binding and unbinding to D4S6 of Nav1.4 sodium channel as revealed by improved estimation of toxin sensitivity.
Distinct sites regulating grayanotoxin binding and unbinding to D4S6 of Na(v)1.4 sodium channel as revealed by improved estimation of toxin sensitivity.
Grayanotoxin is a natural product derived from the plants belonging to Ericaceae family.
Our case's importance is the report of atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response due to grayanotoxin poisoning and our case is the first report in national literature.