d-glu·cose (G, Glc), (glū'kōs),
Dextrose; a dextrorotatory monosaccharide (hexose) found in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants, and combined in glucosides, disaccharides (often with fructose in sugars), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides; it is the product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Free glucose also occurs in the blood, where it is a principal energy source for use by body tissues (normal human concentration, 70-110 mg per 100 mL); in diabetes mellitus, it appears in the urine. The epimers of d-glucose are d-allose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and l-idose. Dextrose should not be confused with the l-isomer, which is sinistrose.
sugar (shug'ar) [Ult. fr. Arabic sukkar via L. succarum]
A sweet-tasting, low-molecular-weight carbohydrate of the monosaccharide or disaccharide groups. Common sugars include fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and xylose. Oral or parenteral administration of sugars can prevent hypoglycemia caused by insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.
Sugars are classified in two ways: the number of atoms of simple sugars yielded on hydrolysis by a molecule of the given sugar and the number of carbon atoms in the molecules of the simple sugars so obtained. Therefore, glucose is a monosaccharide because it cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler sugar; it is a hexose because it contains six carbon atoms per molecule. Sucrose is a disaccharide because on hydrolysis it yields two molecules, one of glucose and one of fructose.
Sucrose obtained from sugar beets.
Glucose in the blood, normally 60 to 100 mg/100 ml of blood. It rises after consumption of a meal to variable levels, depending on the content of the meal, the activity level of and medications used by the consumer, and other variables. In diabetes mellitus, fasting blood sugar levels exceed 126 mg/dl. See: glucose
Sucrose obtained from sugar cane.
Mixture consisting of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose.
Inositol. It is not a true sugar.
A sugar molecule made of few components (e.g., a monosaccharide or disaccharide).