grape sugar


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d-glu·cose (G, Glc),

(glū'kōs),
Dextrose; a dextrorotatory monosaccharide (hexose) found in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants, and combined in glucosides, disaccharides (often with fructose in sugars), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides; it is the product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Free glucose also occurs in the blood, where it is a principal energy source for use by body tissues (normal human concentration, 70-110 mg per 100 mL); in diabetes mellitus, it appears in the urine. The epimers of d-glucose are d-allose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and l-idose. Dextrose should not be confused with the l-isomer, which is sinistrose.
Synonym(s): cellohexose

grape sugar

n.
Dextrose obtained from grapes.

sugar

(shug'ar) [Ult. fr. Arabic sukkar via L. succarum]
A sweet-tasting, low-molecular-weight carbohydrate of the monosaccharide or disaccharide groups. Common sugars include fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and xylose. Oral or parenteral administration of sugars can prevent hypoglycemia caused by insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.

Classification

Sugars are classified in two ways: the number of atoms of simple sugars yielded on hydrolysis by a molecule of the given sugar and the number of carbon atoms in the molecules of the simple sugars so obtained. Therefore, glucose is a monosaccharide because it cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler sugar; it is a hexose because it contains six carbon atoms per molecule. Sucrose is a disaccharide because on hydrolysis it yields two molecules, one of glucose and one of fructose.

See: carbohydrate

beet sugar

Sucrose obtained from sugar beets.

birch sugar

Xylose.

blood sugar

Glucose in the blood, normally 60 to 100 mg/100 ml of blood. It rises after consumption of a meal to variable levels, depending on the content of the meal, the activity level of and medications used by the consumer, and other variables. In diabetes mellitus, fasting blood sugar levels exceed 126 mg/dl.
See: glucose

cane sugar

Sucrose obtained from sugar cane.

fruit sugar

Fructose.

grape sugar

Glucose.

invert sugar

Mixture consisting of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose.

malt sugar

Maltose.

milk sugar

Lactose.

muscle sugar

Inositol. It is not a true sugar.

simple sugar

A sugar molecule made of few components (e.g., a monosaccharide or disaccharide).

wood sugar

Xylose.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Simple microbiology tells us that the ethanol in wine is produced from grape sugars by yeasts during fermentation.
Paul Draper of Ridge Vineyards puts these elevated grape sugars into context.
Juice from grapes affected by smoke was studied in laboratory analyses to discover what occurred with the volatile phenols.15 The experiments demonstrated that the plant had bound the smoky compounds to grape sugars (see "Uptake and Release of Smoke Taint in Grapevines" on page 61).
Commercial yeasts are developed to bring flavour notes which the winemaker expects, to allow for consistency in finished Native yeasts hang around in the winery atmosphere, waiting to pounce and start converting grape sugars into alcohol.
Hilly DOCG vineyards receive rich sunshine, ripening grape sugars and fruity flavor, along with cool nights that maintain grape acidity.
This is due to yeast growth on damaged berries converting grape sugars to ethanol, which the bacteria then convert to acetic acid.
This process, known as mutage, arrests the fermentation and allows the wine to retain its natural sweetness from unfermented grape sugars. The result is a fortified wine of around 18-20 degrees.
The process known as mutage immediately arrests the fermentation, allowing the now fortified wine to retain its natural sweetness from the unfermented grape sugars, producing a beverage between 18-20 degrees.
A Vin Doux Naturel is a lightly fortified wine, whereby the addition of grape spirit arrests the alcoholic fermentation, leaving naturally sweet grape sugars, but increasing the alcoholic strength to around 15.5 degrees.
This process, known as mutage, kills off the yeast and arrests the fermentation, allowing the fortified wine to retain its unfermented grape sugars, producing natural sweetness and a beverage of between 18-20 per cent abv.