Proteases with serine esterase activities that represent most of the granule content of T cytotoxic cells.
[granule + -zyme]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
The ELISpot and FluoroSpot Assay are using to detect various antibodies, cytokines, and granzymes. ELISpot and FluoroSpot Assay are a sensitive technique used for the recognition of immune cells which specific proteins such as cytokines or antibodies.
Natural killer cells are also cytotoxic by releasing proteins called perforin that form holes in the cell membrane where granzymes enter to destroy the virus inside the cell.
Activated CAR T-cells release perforin and granzymes that attack tumour cells directly.
Alefacept inhibits T effectors by apoptosis of T cells (releasing granzymes by the NK cells).
Tregs may also kill their target cells through cell contact-dependent cytolysis by granzymes A and B, in both perforin-dependent and perforin-independent manner, or induce apoptosis via the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-death receptor 5 (TRAILDR5) pathway, among other means [25].
[CD8.sup.+] lymphocytes contribute to tissue injury and cell death in the lung via the release of proteolytic enzymes, such as perforin and granzymes [117-120].
The treatment also resulted in marked upregulation in the level of granzymes (granzymes B and C) and perforin protein concomitant to induce programmed cell death [12].
In the inflammatory sites, increased levels of neutrophil serine proteases (like elastase, cathepsin G, or chymotrypsin) [139], macrophagesderived PR3 and caspase-1 [140, 141], or granzymes from NK cells [142] are released from activated or dying cells and these enzymes cleave the N-terminal peptide of IL-1[beta] and release the active free C-terminal cytokine part (Figure 1).
The cytotoxic effect of killers is realized in the target cell plasma membrane by special proteins--perforins, granzymes, etc., which lead to the formation in this organoid of perforations (pores).
Release of granzymes and chemokines in Thai patients with leptospirosis.
The cytotoxic function of NK-cells and CTLs is mediated by release of cytolytic granules, which contain perforin, granzymes, and other serine-specific proteases, into the immunological synapse that forms between the effector and the target cell.