The ELISpot and FluoroSpot Assay are using to detect various antibodies, cytokines, and granzymes
. ELISpot and FluoroSpot Assay are a sensitive technique used for the recognition of immune cells which specific proteins such as cytokines or antibodies.
Natural killer cells are also cytotoxic by releasing proteins called perforin that form holes in the cell membrane where granzymes
enter to destroy the virus inside the cell.
Activated CAR T-cells release perforin and granzymes
that attack tumour cells directly.
Alefacept inhibits T effectors by apoptosis of T cells (releasing granzymes
by the NK cells).
Tregs may also kill their target cells through cell contact-dependent cytolysis by granzymes
A and B, in both perforin-dependent and perforin-independent manner, or induce apoptosis via the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-death receptor 5 (TRAILDR5) pathway, among other means .
[CD8.sup.+] lymphocytes contribute to tissue injury and cell death in the lung via the release of proteolytic enzymes, such as perforin and granzymes
The treatment also resulted in marked upregulation in the level of granzymes
B and C) and perforin protein concomitant to induce programmed cell death .
In the inflammatory sites, increased levels of neutrophil serine proteases (like elastase, cathepsin G, or chymotrypsin) , macrophagesderived PR3 and caspase-1 [140, 141], or granzymes
from NK cells  are released from activated or dying cells and these enzymes cleave the N-terminal peptide of IL-1[beta] and release the active free C-terminal cytokine part (Figure 1).
He demonstrated that the NK activity and the expression of granulysin, and granzymes
A in the NK cells significantly increased after incubation.
The cytotoxic effect of killers is realized in the target cell plasma membrane by special proteins--perforins, granzymes
, etc., which lead to the formation in this organoid of perforations (pores).
Release of granzymes
and chemokines in Thai patients with leptospirosis.
The cytotoxic function of NK-cells and CTLs is mediated by release of cytolytic granules, which contain perforin, granzymes
, and other serine-specific proteases, into the immunological synapse that forms between the effector and the target cell.