granule cell

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Related to granule cell: Granular cell

granule cell

1. Any of the small neurons that pack the granular cell layer of the cerebellar cortex, immediately below the Purkinje cell layer. Granule cells receive inputs (mossy fibers) from the spinal cord and brainstem (except the inferior olive). Axons of granule cells run perpendicular to the Purkinje cell dendrites, on which they synapse.
2. Any of the neurons of the cerebral cortex that are not pyramidal cells. Cortical granule cells are categorized as spiny or nonspiny. Synonym: stellate cell
3. A small axon-less neuron found in the olfactory bulb.
See also: cell


1. a small particle or grain.
2. a small pill made of sucrose.

acidophil g's
granules staining with acid dyes.
aleuronoid g's
colorless myeloid colloidal bodies found in the base of pigment cells.
alpha g's
1. oval granules found in blood platelets; they are lysosomes containing acid phosphatase.
2. large granules in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans; they secrete glucagon.
3. acidophilic granules in the alpha cells of the adenohypophysis.
amphophil g's
granules that stain with both acid and basic dyes.
azur g's, azurophil g's
granules that stain easily with azure dyes; they are coarse, reddish granules and are seen in many lymphocytes.
basophil g's
granules staining with basic dyes.
beta g's
1. granules in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin.
2. basophilic granules in the beta cells of the adenohypophysis.
granule cell
the largest group of cells produced by the external germinal layer on the external surface of the embryonal cerebellum; they form the thick granular layer of the cerebellum; called also granule neurons.
chromatic g's, chromophilic g's
see nissl bodies.
cone g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the cones.
eosinophil g's
those staining with eosin. See also alpha granules (above).
epsilon granule
see neutrophil granules (below).
Grawitz's g's
minute granules seen in the erythrocytes in the basophilia of lead poisoning.
iodophil g's
granules staining brown with iodine, seen in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in various acute infectious diseases.
keratohyalin granule
keratin precursor; in the stratum granulosum of the epithelium.
metachromatic g's
granules present in mast cells and many bacterial cells, having an avidity for basic dyes and causing irregular staining of the cell.
mitochondrial g's
organelles in osteoblasts through which temporary calcium ion sequestration can be effected.
granule neurons
see granule cell (above).
neutrophil g's
neutrophilic granules from the protoplasm of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; called also epsilon granules.
Nissl's g's
see nissl bodies.
oxyphil g's
acidophil granules.
pigment g's
small masses of coloring matter in pigment cells.
primary g's
the peroxidase-positive granules of neutrophils, most prominent in the progranulocyte and early myelocyte stages.
rod g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the rods.
secondary g's
the peroxidase-negative ('specific') granules seen in mature neutrophils.
seminal g's
the small granular bodies in the semen.
sulfur g's
see sulfur granule.
toxic g's
dark-staining granules in neutrophils that contain peroxidase and acid hydrolases. They occur in inflammatory reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
1) The dentate gyrus does not appear to expand sufficiently to accommodate all the new neurons formed throughout adulthood, suggesting some form of granule cell turnover in the adult hippocampus.
This exposure also leads to atrophy that is characterized by specific targeting of glutaminergic and GABAergic precursor cells of the cerebellum (especially granule cells) resulting in misalignment of Purkinje cells and ectopic and multinucleated granule cells.
Treatment of primary cultured cerebellar granule cells with 20 [micro]M obovatol could significantly increase the [GABA.
2] as a probable contributor to decreased viability in cerebellar granule cells following acute exposure to methylmercury.
The effect of brominated flame retardants on cell death and free radical formation in cerebellar granule cells.
In our recent in vitro study, USE exerted a protective effect against NO donor-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (Shimada et al.
The scientists studied genetically modified mice lacking NMDA receptors in dentate gyrus granule cells and pyramid cells in the CA1 region.
Results showed that granule cells were much more sensitive to the genotoxicants than astrocytes.
Moreover, we found that the aqueous extract of KBG protected against glutamate-induced neuronal death (unpublished observation), and reported that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomi Cortex has protective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) (Shimada et al.
The PRKCB1 gene is expressed in the granule cells within the cerebellum (a region of the brain) where the PRKCB1 protein plays a central role in the transmission of signals by the granule cells to the Purkinje cells.
In the study, Scheiffele's group demonstrated that these mossy fiber inputs often connect with Purkinje neurons during early brain development, in addition to granule cells.
is entitled "Selective vulnerability of dentate granule cells prior to amyloid deposition in PDAPP mice: Digital morphometric analyses" and is also available in the online edition of PNAS at http://www.