graft-versus-host disease


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to graft-versus-host disease: cGVHD

graft-versus-host disease (reaction)

 (GVH disease)
a condition that occurs when immunologically competent cells or their precursors are transplanted into an immunocompromised recipient (host) that is not histocompatible with the donor. Because the host is immunocompromised, the graft is not rejected. Immunocompetent T lymphocytes derived from the donor tissue recognize the recipient's tissue as foreign or nonself and react with it, producing clinical manifestations including edema, erythema, ulceration, loss of hair, and heart and joint lesions similar to those of connective tissue disorders. This condition is a frequent complication of bone marrow transplantation. tissue typing and hla antigen matching of the donor and recipient reduce the possibility of graft-versus-host disease.

graft-versus-host disease

(grăft′vûr′səs-hōst′, -səz-)
n.
A condition in which cells from the transplanted tissue of a donor initiate an immunologic attack on the cells and tissue of the recipient.

graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

a rejection response of certain grafts, especially of bone marrow. It is commonly associated with inadequate immunosuppressive therapy of the donor, which allows immunocompetent cells in the donated tissue to recognize the recipient's tissues as foreign and to attack them. Because the recipient is totally immunosuppressed, the recipient's immune system cannot defend against the attack. Characteristic signs may include skin lesions with edema, erythema, ulceration, scaling, loss of hair, lesions of the joints and the heart, and hemolytic anemia with a positive Coombs' test reaction. Also called graft-versus-host reaction, homologous disease.
enlarge picture
Acute graft-versus-host disease

graft-versus-host disease

Clinical immunology A reaction of donated BM against a Pt's own tissue, which is a major cause of M&M in allograft BMTs; GVHD is less significant in transplanted kidneys, heart, liver, and skin; viable donor T cells react immunologically against host Clinical Fever, morbiliform rash–central erythematous maculopapular eruption that may spread to the extremities with bulla formation, anorexia, N&V, severe watery or bloody diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, infections, hepatosplenomegaly, ↑ LFTs, jaundice, hemolytic anemia Prevention Irradiation of donated blood may prevent active leukocytes from rejecting recipient tissues Prophylaxis Cyclosporin, MTX, tacrolimus Treatment12 of Pts who develop post-BMT GVHD respond to high-dose steroids. See Bone marrow transplantation, Rapamycin, Tacrolimus, Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease.

graft-ver·sus-host dis·ease

(GVHD) (graft vĕr'sŭs hōst di-zēz')
An incompatibility reaction (which may be fatal) in a subject (host) of low immunologic competence (deficient lymphoid tissue) who has been the recipient of immunologically competent lymphoid tissue from a donor who lacks at least one antigen possessed by the recipient host; the reaction, or disease, is the result of action of the transplanted cells against those host tissues that possess the antigen not possessed by the donor.

graft-versus-host disease

A complication usually appearing two to three weeks after a bone marrow transplantation and caused by cytotoxic T cells in the donated marrow graft. These attack the host tissues causing liver inflammation (hepatitis) with obstruction to bile flow, diarrhoea and a severe scaling skin disease called exfoliative dermatitis. Drugs such as CYCLOSPORIN (ciclosporin) and high dose steroids must be used as the condition, once fully established, has a mortality of about 30%.
graft-versus-host disease graft tissue rejection, triggered by host tissue reaction to graft antigen

graft-ver·sus-host dis·ease

(GVHD) (graft vĕr'sŭs hōst di-zēz')
An incompatibility reaction (which may be fatal) in a subject (host) of low immunologic competence (deficient lymphoid tissue) who has been the recipient of immunologically competent lymphoid tissue from a donor who lacks at least one antigen possessed by the recipient host; the reaction, or disease, is the result of action of the transplanted cells against those host tissues that possess the antigen not possessed by the donor.

graft-versus-host disease

a condition that occurs when immunologically competent cells or their precursors are transplanted into an immunologically incompetent recipient (host) that is not histocompatible with the donor. Because the host is immunodeficient, the graft is not rejected. Immunocompetent T lymphocytes present in the donor tissue are activated and recognize the recipient's tissue as 'foreign' and react to them, producing clinical manifestations including edema, erythema, ulceration, loss of hair, and heart and joint lesions similar to those occurring in connective tissue disorders. Called also GVH disease or reaction, runting syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acute graft-versus-host disease in pancreas transplantation: a comparison of two case presentations and a review of the literature.
Table 14: Selected drugs investigated in the treatment of steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease 40
Endonovo Therapeutics has used this new technology to create a biologically potent, off-the-shelf, allogeneic treatment for Graft-Versus-Host disease and a wide-array of other conditions.
Thirty to 40 percent of stem cell transplant recipients whose donor is related will experience graft-versus-host disease.
Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which functional immune cells in the transplanted marrow recognize the recipient as "foreign" and mount an immunologic attack.
Israel-based Kamada has received orphan drug designation from the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products for its human intravenous Alpha-1 Antitrypsin to treat graft-versus-host disease, it was reported yesterday.
Therakos is also conducting clinical trials with the aim of seeking FDA approval for a number of new disease indications for photopheresis, including emerging indications in the field of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and disorders such as the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease.
16 July 2014 - Scientists at the University of Michigan and Indiana University have developed a novel protein biomarker test able to concurrently assess numerous proteins indicating the presence of diseases such as graft-versus-host disease, the leading cause of death among patients with allogeneic bone marrow transplant.
Earlier research had suggested that these Langerhans cells react with immune cells derived from the transplant and cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a dangerous complication in which donor immune cells attack the skin, liver, and gut.
After purification, this material contains only stem and progenitor cells, with no detectable contaminating cells such as tumor cells or the T-cells which cause graft-versus-host disease in donor-to-patient transplants.
M2 EQUITYBITES-March 25, 2015-Kamada receives Orphan Medicinal Products drug status for graft-versus-host disease treatment Alpha-1 Antitrypsin
14 September 2011 - US biotechnology company Accentia Biopharmaceuticals Inc (PINK:ABPI) and its subsidiary Biovest International Inc (PINK:BVTI) announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had given Orphan Drug designation to Revimmune, for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following bone marrow transplant.