Posterior facial height S -GO:###A linear distance from Sella to Gonion
Mean and Frequency of Condyion Gonion
Displacement Index (CGDI) Parameter (N) Mean [+ or -] SD No.
Abbreviations: 3-D = three dimensional, 6-DOF = six degrees of freedom, CAD = computer-aided design, CAS = computer-assisted surgical, CT = computed tomography, CW = coronoid width, GW = gonion
width, LCW = lateral condyle width, MAL = mandibular angle left, MAR = mandibular angle right, MLL = mandibular length left, MLR = mandibular length right, OEF = Operation Enduring Freedom, OIF = Operation Iraqi Freedom, SD = standard deviation.
In another study, Sandler reported that joint and gonion
are the points with the most reproducibility by manual tracing.
Next, position the central ray perpendicular to the IR, entering midway between the mentum and gonion
on the contralateral side.
The facial points pogonion (Pg), labial commissure (Co), gonion
(Go), outer eye corner (C), and tragus (T) were marked with indelible ink; measurements of swelling were performed with a millimetric ruler from the facial planes (T-Co, T-Po, C-Go, and Go-Co).
In accordance with the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the mandible, two anatomical reference points are defined on the X-ray image in GIMP software: menton (ME) and gonion
(b) Lateral cephalometric radiographs skeletal reference points: Nasion (N), sella (S), orbitale (Or), porion (Po), condylon(Co), anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), point (A), point (B), gnathion (Gn), menton (Me), and gonion
Na cabeca, as bossas frontais, as arcadas supraciliares, os ossos proprios do nariz, os malares ou zigomatico, o maxilar inferior, o gonion
e o mento.
Caption: FIGURE 1: Points and plains used in cephalometric analysis: Gl; (soft-tissue glabella), Prn (pronasale), Cm (columella), Sn (subnasale), Ls (labrale superius), Li (labrale inferius), Pg; (soft-tissue pogonion), Pg (osseous pogonion), Gn (gnathion), Me (menton), Go (gonion
), Ba (basion), Co (condylion), Po (porion), Pt (pterygoid point), S (sella), PNS (posterior nasal spine), ANS (anterior nasal spine), N (nasion), Or (orbitale), Ap + 1 (apicale superius), Ap - 1 (apicale inferius), In + 1 (incisale superius), In - 1 (incisale inferius), NSL (nasion-sella line), FA (facial axis), NL (nasal line), MP (mandibular plane), FH (Frankfort horizontal), E (Ricketts' Esthetic line), and S (Steiner's line).
In the study done by Naeem et al, (5) it was thought that by using a protractor to accurately determine the direction of the line perpendicular to the line joining the 'menton' and 'gonion
', more consistent results could be obtained.
For the video data from the camera recording perpendicularly to the net, the locations of 21 body landmarks (vertex, gonion
, suprasternale, right and left shoulders, elbows, wrists, third knuckles, hips, knees, ankles, heels, and toes) were manually digitized, and their horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) locations were expressed in standard units with respect to a planar origin at the midpoint of the centerline and on the ground.