Afang soup contains these ingredients and a major vegetable, Gnetum
africanum as well as water leaf while in edikang ikong soup, fluted pumpkin (ugwu in Ibo) only replaces Gnetum
Following (Chase et al., 1993; Doyle et al., 1994; Soltis et al., 1997; Soltis et al., 2000; Zanis et al., 2003) a set of gymnosperms (specifically Gnetum
and Ephedra (Gnetales)) was designated as outgroup.
The main traditional, often aboriginally-introduced, species found in villages and house-yard gardens, in permanent village tree groves, and as protected or deliberately planted intercrops in food gardens, include: coconut palms, a wide range of banana and plantain cultivars, breadfruit, sago palm, nut trees (Canarium spp., Barringtonia edulis, Inocarpus fagifer, and Terminalia catappa), edible pandanus (Pandanus spp.), Malay or mountain apple (Syzygium malaccense), oceanic litchi (Pometia pinnata), Polynesian vi-apple (Spondius dulcis), pommelo (Citrus maxima), joint-fir (Gnetum
gnemon), edible figs (Ficus spp.), dragon plum (Dracontomelon vidense), red-bead tree (Adenanthera pavonina), and a number of palms, including the betelnut (Areca catechu) and Pritchardia and Veitchia spp.