The differential diagnosis includes other parasites (uncinariasis, gnathostomiasis
, strongyloidiasis, myiasis), dermatophytosis, phytophotodermatitis, erythema chronicum migrans, granuloma annulare, and bullous impetigo.
In order to describe the biology and life cycle of Gnathostoma nematodes; and the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of human gnathostomiasis
, Internet search engines, including PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google[R], and Google Scholar[R], were queried with the key medical subject heading (MESH) words, "infections, helminthic; Helminthiasis, gnathosomiasis, neurognathostomiasis; nematode parasites, Gnathostoma species." Case reports, case series, epidemiological investigations, and laboratory studies were reviewed; high-risk behaviors for gnathostomiasis
were identified, and human cases of gnathostomiasis
were stratified as cutaneous gnathostomiasis
, visceral gnathostomiasis
, neurognathostomiasis, and ocular gnathostomiasis
In parts of Asia, wild-caught and aquaculture-reared swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are widely consumed as food by humans (1-3) and are a common source of human gnathostomiasis
, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp.
Hence, a full dietary history is crucial to identify possible exposure risks, as it would also be for anisakiasis ('sushi worms') and gnathostomiasis
from raw fish, paragonimiasis from freshwater crabs and crayfish, and trichinosis following ingestion of raw or undercooked pork or more exotic meats such as wild boar, horse, bear or seal, depending on geographic location.
For example, Chagas disease is predominant in South America, whereas gnathostomiasis
is predominant in Southeast Asia.
THOUSANDS OF LIVE SWAMP EELS SHIPPED TO NORTH America from Asia since the 1990's to ethnic food markets might be the origin of the food-borne illness gnathostomiasis
. In the Asian countries that are shipping these eels, infection causing Gnathostoma spinigerum nematodes are common among the farmed as well as wild monopterus eels.
According to the study, people can also catch certain diseases (trichinosis, pentastomiasis, gnathostomiasis
and sparganosis) by eating reptile meat.
A patient presenting with exactly the same constellation of symptoms, usually with some latency after a sojourn in Thailand (or circumscribed parts of South America) and after ingestion of raw fish dishes (or else unusual meats such as bullfrog meat) would most likely be diagnosed as having gnathostomiasis
Abstract: Human gnathostomiasis
is a food-born parasitic disease of relative importance in many countries in Southeast Asia.
To the Editor: Gnathostomiasis
is an infestation by nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma; the main source of infection is raw freshwater fish.