identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer.
Researchers then apply fluorescently labeled antibodies that specifically target two protein biomarkers for pancreatic cancer: glypican-1
Kahlert et al., "Glypican-1
identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer," Nature, 2015.
Pr[P.sup.C] localizes to cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich, detergent resistant lipid rafts due to the saturated acryl chains in its GPI anchor and to an N-terminal targeting signal interacting with heparin sulfate proteoglycan, glypican-1
. Pr[P.sup.C] has been proposed as a key scaffolding protein for dynamic assembly of cell surface signaling modules, and Pr[P.sup.C], along with the micro domain-forming flotillin, or caveolin proteins, may lead to the local assembly of membrane protein complexes at sites involved in cellular communication, such as cell-cell contacts, focal adhesions, the T-cell cap, and synapses.
Glypican-1 (GPC1) is a proteoglycan that plays a role in the control of cell division and growth regulation.
Lopez et al., "Glypican-1 modulates the angiogenic and metastatic potential of human and mouse cancer cells," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Kumbasar et al., "The cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1 regulates growth factor action in pancreatic carcinoma cells and is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
In addition potential markers have been identified among tumor-derived exosome-enriched proteins: (i) the cell surface proteoglycan Glypican-1
(GPC-1), expressed on serum exosomes, discriminates patients with pancreatic cancer from those with chronic pancreatitis ; (ii) exosomes isolated from ovarian cancer patients' plasma, but not from healthy controls or patients with benign tumors, carry TGF-[beta]1 and MAGE3/6 ; (iii) aggressive human glioma cells express an epidermal growth factor receptor EGFRvIII variant that may be transferred by tumor-derived exosomes to cells lacking it, leading to the horizontal transfer of oncogenic activity .
A number of components of the prostaglandin synthesis system-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), secretory phospholipase A2 group: IIA, V, and IB (sPLA2-IIA, sPLA2-V, sPLA2-IB), glypican-1
, PG-E synthase, PG-E receptors, and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 (LPA3) have been estimated and very low levels of sPLA2-IIA and COX-2 were measured in 85% of RIF patients.
Margolis, "Characterization of slit protein interactions with glypican-1
," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1
in the developing rodent.
and endothelial locus-1 positive exosomes may serve as potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of pancreatic cancer and breast cancer, respectively [70, 71].