(3) Some affect the morphological shape and integrity of the RBC membrane, including Diego (carried by Band 3), Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG), Rh, Gerbich (carried by glycophorins C and D), XK protein (carries Kx antigen), and Duffy.
Glycophorins (sialoglycoproteins), which carry the MNS (glycophorin A/GPA and glycophorin B/GPB) and Gerbich (glycophorin C/GPC and glycophorin D/GPD) BGAs, are rich in sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) and account for much of the net negative surface charge responsible for the natural repulsion of RBCs.
P falciparum targets glycophorins
, which form the MNS blood group system.
, blood groups, and protection from severe Malaria.
In another third, the antibodies target proteins in membrane glycoproteins (glycophorins
) of the red cell; in other cases, the antibodies have specificity for antigens in the Kell or Duffy blood group system (very rarely for ABO antigens) or for structures in the membrane that are not blood group antigens (e.g.
As (V) and As (III) enter plant cells via phosphate transporters and aqua glycophorins
, respectively, as reviewed by Bhattacharjee et al.
Red blood cell glycophorins
as B and T-cell antigens in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.
For decades, it has been known that malaria parasites use proteins called glycophorins
as a means of entering red blood cells.
Similarly, they cause the rupture of glycophorins
from the erythrocytic surface, easing the activation of the complement and hemolysis .
Loxosceles intermedia spider envenomation induces activation of an endogenous metalloproteinase, resulting in cleavage of glycophorins
from the erythrocyte surface and facilitating complement-mediated lysis.
These SGPs were named as glycophorins
(Furthmayr et al., 1975).
For many years it has been known that proteins called glycophorins
are used by the parasite to gain entry into the red cell," said Jose A.